Presentation on theme: "The Scramble for Africa The Colonial History of Africa."— Presentation transcript:
The Scramble for Africa The Colonial History of Africa
What is the Scramble Time of intense European colonization of Africa Especially Sub-Saharan Africa Early 1870’s to right before the Great War (WWI, 1911)
Africa Before The Scramble -European settlements limited to coastal trade posts -No reason to explore Africa -Very limited African civilization -Most large settlements are Islamic states (Caliphates)
What lead to the Scramble Many added reasons Economic Overproduction Need for raw materials Humanitarian David Livingstone Political Continental Competition It was easier than theretofore Diseases Medical advances for malaria and yellow fever Technological advancements Steam navigation Railroads Telegraph
Economic Factors Britain: world’s first post-industrial nation European markets: shrinking and increasingly protectionist Africa Cheap labor; abundant raw materials; limited competition Raw materials not available in Europe Rubber Tin Cotton Tea Copper
Humanitarian Factors Goal of “civilizing” Africa David Livingstone Scottish explorer/missionary (mid 19 th -century) Witnessed injustices of slave trade Wanted to spread Christianity in Africa Death spurred European interest of Africa
Political Factors Competition among European states Namely: Britain, France, Germany Berlin Conference (1884-1885) Formalized the scramble Regulated it to prevent wars between colonizing powers
Important People and settlements King Leopold II of Belgium Congo Free State Henry Morton Stanley Cecil Rhodes
King Leopold II King of Belgium Favored Colonialism Government did not support him Pursued colonialism as a private citizen Hired Henry Morton Stanley to explore the Congo Had ruling status over Congo Free state
Atrocities of Leopold II Between 5 and 15 million natives of Congo died as a result of Leopold’s Colonialism Book Reference
Henry Morton Stanley Anglo-American Explorer Responsible for the development of the lower Congo in the name of King Leopold II Found David Livingstone before his death
Cecil Rhodes British Nationalist, politician, and businessman Dreamed of “Painting the map red” Partner in De Beers Mining Co. Founded Rhodesia in present day Zimbabwe Lobbied for the Cape- to-Cairo Railroad Prime Minister of Cape Colony during Boer War (1895)
Accomplishments (1885- 1914) England: took 30% of the African Population under its control France 15% Germany 9% Belgium 7% Italy 1% Europe added 9 million square miles, 20% of earth’s landmass to its empires
Impact of Colonialism Youtube Colonialism: Sins of Europe in Scramble for Africa http://www.youtube.com/watch?v= uu6-TLC0NRQ&NR=1 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v= uu6-TLC0NRQ&NR=1 Warning….some scenes are disturbing.
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