2Section 1 Water and Its Properties Objectives:Describe the amount of fresh water on earthRelate the structure of water molecules to the physical and chemical properties of waterExplain why living things need waterGeneralize about the role of energy in the water cycle
3Skills Warm-up Down the Drain How much water do you use in a day? Use the following estimates in your calculations:Toilet – 20L/flushGlass of water – 0.25LFaucet – 15L/min5-minute shower – 75L
4Earth’s Fresh WaterEarth is the water planet – ________ of surface covered by waterTotal Water:________ salt water________ fresh water in glaciers/ice caps________ water is underground_____ is in atmosphereWhatever is left - surface fresh water
5Put it in PerspectiveImagine ___________ of soda – represents all of earth’s waterNow imagine _______ of soda – represents the amount of usable fresh waterWe must protect and conserve !
7Properties of Water 3 Phases of Matter ________ – has its own shape because molecules are held together rigidly_______ – takes shape of container because molecules not held together as closely____ – fills its container because molecules not held together
8Properties of WaterWater is the only compound that occurs in all 3 ______ ___ _______ at ________ earth temperaturesIce covered lakeIce is water’s solid phaseWater underneath is the liquid phaseWater vapor above ice is the gas phase
10Water Molecule Water’s chemical formula is _______ What does that mean?Water is a _________ molecule – the hydrogen atoms have a slight __________ charge and the oxygen a slight __________ charge
11Water Molecule Since opposites attract: The ___________ atoms from one water molecule areAttracted to the __________ atoms from other water moleculesThey “stick” together through ___________ __________
12Physical Properties of Water Water gains and loses heat energy _________ compared to other compoundsHeat is the energy of ___________ moleculesIt takes ________ energy to separate polar water molecules and get them movingWater also ________ ______
13Physical Properties of Water Normally a material’s solid phase is _______ than its liquid phaseBut, water’s solid phase is ____ _______This is because water’s polar molecules can’t get too close togetherLike charges _______That is why ice ______ on water
14Physical Properties of Water Water has ________ _______ – its surface is a skin-like layerThis occurs because water molecules _________ each otherGives water droplets a __________ shapeAlso causes light objects to ________
15Chemical Properties of Water Water is called the _______________________It can dissolve many other _____ substancesThink of all the things you drink (milk, lemonade, soda) that are mixtures of other things in waterThis is also due to water molecules’ ______ – they attract other things and keep them in solution
21Water CycleThe water cycle is a _________________ of evaporation and condensation that controls the distribution of the earth's water as it:____________ from bodies of water________________________ to those bodies of water
23Water Cycle _____________ – water vapor condenses into liquid water _____________ – liquid water is heated by sun’s energy to form water vapor_____________ – Water falls as rain, hail, sleet, or snow________ – when water cannot soak into the ground – gravity pulls it downhill
25Water and Living Things _________ is essential for all living thingsAbout _______ of your body weight is from waterYou can survive ______ without food than without water3-5 days without waterSeveral weeks without food
26Water and Living Things We take in water by ________ and ________We release water in _____________, _____________, _____________, etc.Water keeps us cool on hot days – heat energy from your hot skin evaporates watery sweat, cooling you off
27Water and Living Things ______ use water, along with carbon dioxide and light from the sun for _________________________________ – process by which water move up through a plant eventually exiting through tiny __________ in their leaves_______ __________ of water return to the atmosphere by transpiration
28Your Water UseOn average, each person in U.S. uses __________ of water/day – not including indirect uses
29Your Water UseIf you include all indirect water uses – the average consumption is over ___________________Indirect water use can include:200,000L to ____________800L to ________________500L to ________________4,000L to ______________
30Your Water Use Where does fresh water come from? __________________All of these sources get their water from precipitation
31How Do We Return WaterWater from crops and plants – direct ___________________Waste water from homes/businesses – must first go through a _____________ _______________________– septic tank separates out wastes from clean water_____________ – pipes to sewage treatment plant where water is filtered and cleaned
34Review Questions1. Describe in your own words what fresh water is. How much of the earth’s water is fresh water?2. Explain how the structures of a water molecule relates to three properties of water.3. Write a general statement describing the role of the sun’s energy in the water cycle.4. Draw and label a diagram that traces the path of a water molecule through the water cycle.
36Section 2 Surface Water Objectives: Describe three ways in which fresh water exists on the surface of the earthDescribe a water shed and its drainage systemsPredict what life on earth might be like if freshwater didn’t accumulate on earth’s surface
37Skills Warm-up Rain Tracks Based on your observations, what happens to rainfall that falls on buildings where you live?What could happen that might change the path of the rainwater?
38Different Landscapes Some areas are forests, some are deserts Areas are different because of the ___________ __ ____________ thereThe amount of water in an area depends on the amount of ______________________
39Running WaterWater from rain or melted snow can ______ into ground, ____________, or flow over as _________Runoff forms rills and gullies to flow into streams and riversRunning water carries water back to _______ and lets water evaporate into air
40Streams and RiversStreams flow into rivers and rivers flow into oceans forming a _____________________From above, a drainage system can form a tree-like pattern______________ – a small stream that flows into a larger one____________ drainage systems have many tributaries
41Streams and Rivers Rivers give fresh __________________ Rivers transport __________________Land along riverbanks is good for ____________ because there is plenty of water and nutrient-rich soil
42WatershedsThe surrounding land area that supplies ______ to the streams of a drainage systemCan be less than 1 km to thousands of kmWatersheds that supply runoff to different drainage systems are separated by a ridge called a _____________Rocky Mountains make up the _______________ ______________________Streams to the _______ drain to the Atlantic OceanStreams to the _______ drain to the Pacific Ocean
43Standing WaterWhen running water reaches a low area in a drainage system, it stops flowingThis low area fills with water to become________ – form in large, deep depressions – sunlight doesn’t reach bottom________ – form in small depressions – sunlight reaches bottom________ – artificial lake built to store fresh water or prevent flooding
44Frozen Water Most of the world’s fresh water is _________ Near the poles, permanent __________ formSnowfields turn into _____________During short summers, some of the ice _______ supplying fresh water to many areas
45The Wandering River___________ River is the 3rd longest in the world – has >200 tributaries and 4th largest watershedIt hasn’t always been in the _______________About every _________ years it changes course, cutting a new ____________ and abandoning its old one
46The Wandering RiverIn Louisiana, the Mississippi has been trying to change its course __________ to the Atchafalaya RiverIf this happened, the port of ____________ would dry up and the cities near the Atchafalaya would floodThe army corps of engineers began a huge flood-control project
47Review Questions1. What are three ways in which fresh water exists on the earth’s surface?2. Describe a watershed and drainage system.3. What do you think life on earth would be like if there were ne fresh water on the surface?
49Section 3 Water Beneath the Surface Objectives:Explain what forms groundwater and describe groundwater zonesDescribe the movements and activities of groundwaterPredict changes in groundwaterClassify earth materials by permeability
50Skills Warm-up Taking in Water What happens when you water a potted plant?Where does the water go?On a global scale, a huge amount of precipitation soaks into the ground.The amount of water underground is more than all the world’s rivers and lakes combined.
51GroundwaterThe water that _______ into the ground from _______ or melted _____Groundwater fills in the _____ ________ between dirt and rock particles_________ – the % of a material’s volume that is pore spaceMaterials with high porosity can hold _________
52PermeabilityIf pore spaces are well connected, water flows easily through the rock – it is ______________Permeable rocks___________Impermeable rocks
54Groundwater ZonesWater from rain or snow soaks into the ground – _________ pulls it downOnce the water reaches an impermeable layer it must __________ _____When the water can’t spread out any further, the water level __________
55Groundwater Zones Groundwater creates two distinct zones ___________________ – lower - all pore spaces contain water___________________ – higher – all pore spaces contain air_____________ ___– the boundary line between the two zones
56Things That Affect Water Table _____________________After lots of rain the water table is higherAfter a dry spell water table is lower______________________ ______________________Impermeable layer close to surface – water table is higherImpermeable layer deeper – water table is lower
57Moving Groundwater__________ – a layer of permeable rock or sediment containing groundwaterUsually form in sandstone, sand, or gravel – above or between impermeable rock layersHave a _______________ – exposed area where water soaks in______________ Aquifer – largest in the U.S. – from South Dakota to Texas
58Moving Groundwater Aquifers are important sources of ______ _____ People _____ ______ into the zone of saturation and ________ water outAn _____________ gets water from an opening in a slanted, capped aquiferWater is forced to the surface by pressure from the aquifer
59Moving GroundwaterCO2 in air combines with water to form __________ _________Acidic rainwater chemically reacts with some rocks forming _______ and __________If water evaporates on ceiling – icicle-like ______________ formIf water evaporates on floor – pillars of minerals or ______________ form
61Moving Groundwater Groundwater can be heated by contact with: _______________(western U.S.)_______________________ (eastern U.S.)______________ – any body of water with a temperature higher than the human body’s___________ – a fountain of hot water ejected from the ground by superheated steam in underground chambers
62Protecting Groundwater Water is the __________ __________As rainwater travels through materials above ground – it dissolves ___________If the dissolved substances are harmful – the groundwater becomes ___________
63Protecting Groundwater Old landfills and dumps are a major hazard to groundwaterAs rainfall moves through it dissolves chemicals in paints, cleansers, household and industrial wastes
64Protecting Groundwater _____ _________ have a lining of ______________ clay, asphalt, or plasticWater containing dissolved chemicals can’t soak through this layer into the groundAfter landfill is full, it is __________ with another impermeable layerGroundwater is then __________ from pollution
65Review Questions1. What is groundwater? Describe two distinct groundwater zones.2. Describe three movements and activities of groundwater.3. What will happen to the water table in an area during a prolonged drought? What else could affect the water table the same way?4. Order the following from least to most permeable: gravel, sand, clay, sandstone.