# Fresh Water Chapter 14.

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Fresh Water Chapter 14

Section 1 Water and Its Properties
Objectives: Describe the amount of fresh water on earth Relate the structure of water molecules to the physical and chemical properties of water Explain why living things need water Generalize about the role of energy in the water cycle

Skills Warm-up Down the Drain How much water do you use in a day?
Use the following estimates in your calculations: Toilet – 20L/flush Glass of water – 0.25L Faucet – 15L/min 5-minute shower – 75L

Earth’s Fresh Water Earth is the water planet – ________ of surface covered by water Total Water: ________ salt water ________ fresh water in glaciers/ice caps ________ water is underground _____ is in atmosphere Whatever is left - surface fresh water

Put it in Perspective Imagine ___________ of soda – represents all of earth’s water Now imagine _______ of soda – represents the amount of usable fresh water We must protect and conserve !

Properties of Water 3 Phases of Matter
________ – has its own shape because molecules are held together rigidly _______ – takes shape of container because molecules not held together as closely ____ – fills its container because molecules not held together

Properties of Water Water is the only compound that occurs in all 3 ______ ___ _______ at ________ earth temperatures Ice covered lake Ice is water’s solid phase Water underneath is the liquid phase Water vapor above ice is the gas phase

Water Molecule Water’s chemical formula is _______
What does that mean? Water is a _________ molecule – the hydrogen atoms have a slight __________ charge and the oxygen a slight __________ charge

Water Molecule Since opposites attract:
The ___________ atoms from one water molecule are Attracted to the __________ atoms from other water molecules They “stick” together through ___________ __________

Physical Properties of Water
Water gains and loses heat energy _________ compared to other compounds Heat is the energy of ___________ molecules It takes ________ energy to separate polar water molecules and get them moving Water also ________ ______

Physical Properties of Water
Normally a material’s solid phase is _______ than its liquid phase But, water’s solid phase is ____ _______ This is because water’s polar molecules can’t get too close together Like charges _______ That is why ice ______ on water

Physical Properties of Water
Water has ________ _______ – its surface is a skin-like layer This occurs because water molecules _________ each other Gives water droplets a __________ shape Also causes light objects to ________

Chemical Properties of Water
Water is called the _______________________ It can dissolve many other _____ substances Think of all the things you drink (milk, lemonade, soda) that are mixtures of other things in water This is also due to water molecules’ ______ – they attract other things and keep them in solution

Activity

Water Lab

Water Cycle The water cycle is a _________________ of evaporation and condensation that controls the distribution of the earth's water as it: ____________ from bodies of water ____________ ____________ to those bodies of water

Water Cycle _____________ – water vapor condenses into liquid water
_____________ – liquid water is heated by sun’s energy to form water vapor _____________ – Water falls as rain, hail, sleet, or snow ________ – when water cannot soak into the ground – gravity pulls it downhill

Water and Living Things
_________ is essential for all living things About _______ of your body weight is from water You can survive ______ without food than without water 3-5 days without water Several weeks without food

Water and Living Things
We take in water by ________ and ________ We release water in _____________, _____________, _____________, etc. Water keeps us cool on hot days – heat energy from your hot skin evaporates watery sweat, cooling you off

Water and Living Things
______ use water, along with carbon dioxide and light from the sun for ____________________ _____________ – process by which water move up through a plant eventually exiting through tiny __________ in their leaves _______ __________ of water return to the atmosphere by transpiration

Your Water Use On average, each person in U.S. uses __________ of water/day – not including indirect uses

Your Water Use If you include all indirect water uses – the average consumption is over ___________________ Indirect water use can include: 200,000L to ____________ 800L to ________________ 500L to ________________ 4,000L to ______________

Your Water Use Where does fresh water come from?
__________________ All of these sources get their water from precipitation

How Do We Return Water Water from crops and plants – direct ___________________ Waste water from homes/businesses – must first go through a _____________ __________ _____________– septic tank separates out wastes from clean water _____________ – pipes to sewage treatment plant where water is filtered and cleaned

Activity Discovery Education “Water Cycle Movie”

Review Questions 1. Describe in your own words what fresh water is. How much of the earth’s water is fresh water? 2. Explain how the structures of a water molecule relates to three properties of water. 3. Write a general statement describing the role of the sun’s energy in the water cycle. 4. Draw and label a diagram that traces the path of a water molecule through the water cycle.

Section 2 Surface Water Objectives:
Describe three ways in which fresh water exists on the surface of the earth Describe a water shed and its drainage systems Predict what life on earth might be like if freshwater didn’t accumulate on earth’s surface

Skills Warm-up Rain Tracks
Based on your observations, what happens to rainfall that falls on buildings where you live? What could happen that might change the path of the rainwater?

Different Landscapes Some areas are forests, some are deserts
Areas are different because of the ___________ __ ____________ there The amount of water in an area depends on the amount of ______________________

Running Water Water from rain or melted snow can ______ into ground, ____________, or flow over as _________ Runoff forms rills and gullies to flow into streams and rivers Running water carries water back to _______ and lets water evaporate into air

Streams and Rivers Streams flow into rivers and rivers flow into oceans forming a _____________________ From above, a drainage system can form a tree-like pattern ______________ – a small stream that flows into a larger one ____________ drainage systems have many tributaries

Streams and Rivers Rivers give fresh __________________
Rivers transport __________________ Land along riverbanks is good for ____________ because there is plenty of water and nutrient-rich soil

Watersheds The surrounding land area that supplies ______ to the streams of a drainage system Can be less than 1 km to thousands of km Watersheds that supply runoff to different drainage systems are separated by a ridge called a _____________ Rocky Mountains make up the _______________ ______________________ Streams to the _______ drain to the Atlantic Ocean Streams to the _______ drain to the Pacific Ocean

Standing Water When running water reaches a low area in a drainage system, it stops flowing This low area fills with water to become ________ – form in large, deep depressions – sunlight doesn’t reach bottom ________ – form in small depressions – sunlight reaches bottom ________ – artificial lake built to store fresh water or prevent flooding

Frozen Water Most of the world’s fresh water is _________
Near the poles, permanent __________ form Snowfields turn into _____________ During short summers, some of the ice _______ supplying fresh water to many areas

The Wandering River ___________ River is the 3rd longest in the world – has >200 tributaries and 4th largest watershed It hasn’t always been in the _______________ About every _________ years it changes course, cutting a new ____________ and abandoning its old one

The Wandering River In Louisiana, the Mississippi has been trying to change its course __________ to the Atchafalaya River If this happened, the port of ____________ would dry up and the cities near the Atchafalaya would flood The army corps of engineers began a huge flood-control project

Review Questions 1. What are three ways in which fresh water exists on the earth’s surface? 2. Describe a watershed and drainage system. 3. What do you think life on earth would be like if there were ne fresh water on the surface?

Section 3 Water Beneath the Surface
Objectives: Explain what forms groundwater and describe groundwater zones Describe the movements and activities of groundwater Predict changes in groundwater Classify earth materials by permeability

Skills Warm-up Taking in Water
What happens when you water a potted plant? Where does the water go? On a global scale, a huge amount of precipitation soaks into the ground. The amount of water underground is more than all the world’s rivers and lakes combined.

Groundwater The water that _______ into the ground from _______ or melted _____ Groundwater fills in the _____ ________ between dirt and rock particles _________ – the % of a material’s volume that is pore space Materials with high porosity can hold _________

Permeability If pore spaces are well connected, water flows easily through the rock – it is ______________ Permeable rocks ___________ Impermeable rocks

Groundwater Zones Water from rain or snow soaks into the ground – _________ pulls it down Once the water reaches an impermeable layer it must __________ _____ When the water can’t spread out any further, the water level __________

Groundwater Zones Groundwater creates two distinct zones
___________________ – lower - all pore spaces contain water ___________________ – higher – all pore spaces contain air _____________ ___– the boundary line between the two zones

Things That Affect Water Table
_____________________ After lots of rain the water table is higher After a dry spell water table is lower ______________________ ______________________ Impermeable layer close to surface – water table is higher Impermeable layer deeper – water table is lower

Moving Groundwater __________ – a layer of permeable rock or sediment containing groundwater Usually form in sandstone, sand, or gravel – above or between impermeable rock layers Have a _______________ – exposed area where water soaks in ______________ Aquifer – largest in the U.S. – from South Dakota to Texas

Moving Groundwater Aquifers are important sources of ______ _____
People _____ ______ into the zone of saturation and ________ water out An _____________ gets water from an opening in a slanted, capped aquifer Water is forced to the surface by pressure from the aquifer

Moving Groundwater CO2 in air combines with water to form __________ _________ Acidic rainwater chemically reacts with some rocks forming _______ and __________ If water evaporates on ceiling – icicle-like ______________ form If water evaporates on floor – pillars of minerals or ______________ form

Moving Groundwater Groundwater can be heated by contact with:
_______________(western U.S.) _______________________ (eastern U.S.) ______________ – any body of water with a temperature higher than the human body’s ___________ – a fountain of hot water ejected from the ground by superheated steam in underground chambers

Protecting Groundwater
Water is the __________ __________ As rainwater travels through materials above ground – it dissolves ___________ If the dissolved substances are harmful – the groundwater becomes ___________

Protecting Groundwater
Old landfills and dumps are a major hazard to groundwater As rainfall moves through it dissolves chemicals in paints, cleansers, household and industrial wastes

Protecting Groundwater
_____ _________ have a lining of ______________ clay, asphalt, or plastic Water containing dissolved chemicals can’t soak through this layer into the ground After landfill is full, it is __________ with another impermeable layer Groundwater is then __________ from pollution

Review Questions 1. What is groundwater? Describe two distinct groundwater zones. 2. Describe three movements and activities of groundwater. 3. What will happen to the water table in an area during a prolonged drought? What else could affect the water table the same way? 4. Order the following from least to most permeable: gravel, sand, clay, sandstone.

Lab Activity How are a siphon and an artesian well similar?
Page 334 in textbook

Activity Groundwater Webquest
techalive.mtu.edu/meec/module04/title.htm

Test Review Read Chapter 14 review – page 335 and complete: