Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

 Objectives: › Describe the amount of fresh water on earth › Relate the structure of water molecules to the physical and chemical properties of water.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: " Objectives: › Describe the amount of fresh water on earth › Relate the structure of water molecules to the physical and chemical properties of water."— Presentation transcript:

1

2  Objectives: › Describe the amount of fresh water on earth › Relate the structure of water molecules to the physical and chemical properties of water › Explain why living things need water › Generalize about the role of energy in the water cycle

3  Down the Drain › How much water do you use in a day? › Use the following estimates in your calculations:  Toilet – 20L/flush  Glass of water – 0.25L  Faucet – 15L/min  5-minute shower – 75L

4  Earth is the water planet – ________ of surface covered by water  Total Water: › ________ salt water › ________ fresh water in glaciers/ice caps › ________ water is underground › _____ is in atmosphere › Whatever is left - surface fresh water

5  Imagine ___________ of soda – represents all of earth’s water  Now imagine _______ of soda – represents the amount of usable fresh water  We must protect and conserve !

6

7  3 Phases of Matter  ________ – has its own shape because molecules are held together rigidly  _______ – takes shape of container because molecules not held together as closely  ____ – fills its container because molecules not held together

8  Water is the only compound that occurs in all 3 ______ ___ _______ at ________ earth temperatures  Ice covered lake › Ice is water’s solid phase › Water underneath is the liquid phase › Water vapor above ice is the gas phase

9

10  Water’s chemical formula is _______  What does that mean?  Water is a _________ molecule – the hydrogen atoms have a slight __________ charge and the oxygen a slight __________ charge

11  Since opposites attract:  The ___________ atoms from one water molecule are  Attracted to the __________ atoms from other water molecules  They “stick” together through ___________ __________

12  Water gains and loses heat energy _________ compared to other compounds  Heat is the energy of ___________ molecules  It takes ________ energy to separate polar water molecules and get them moving  Water also ________ ______

13  Normally a material’s solid phase is _______ than its liquid phase  But, water’s solid phase is ____ _______  This is because water’s polar molecules can’t get too close together  Like charges _______  That is why ice ______ on water

14  Water has ________ _______ – its surface is a skin-like layer  This occurs because water molecules _________ each other  Gives water droplets a __________ shape  Also causes light objects to ________

15  Water is called the _______________________  It can dissolve many other _____ substances  Think of all the things you drink (milk, lemonade, soda) that are mixtures of other things in water  This is also due to water molecules’ ______ – they attract other things and keep them in solution

16

17

18

19

20

21  The water cycle is a _________________ of evaporation and condensation that controls the distribution of the earth's water as it:  ____________ from bodies of water  ____________  ____________ to those bodies of water

22

23  _____________ – water vapor condenses into liquid water  _____________ – liquid water is heated by sun’s energy to form water vapor  _____________ – Water falls as rain, hail, sleet, or snow  ________ – when water cannot soak into the ground – gravity pulls it downhill

24

25  _________ is essential for all living things  About _______ of your body weight is from water  You can survive ______ without food than without water › 3-5 days without water › Several weeks without food

26  We take in water by ________ and ________  We release water in _____________, _____________, _____________, etc.  Water keeps us cool on hot days – heat energy from your hot skin evaporates watery sweat, cooling you off

27  ______ use water, along with carbon dioxide and light from the sun for ____________________  _____________ – process by which water move up through a plant eventually exiting through tiny __________ in their leaves  _______ __________ of water return to the atmosphere by transpiration

28  On average, each person in U.S. uses __________ of water/day – not including indirect uses

29  If you include all indirect water uses – the average consumption is over ___________________  Indirect water use can include: › 200,000L to ____________ › 800L to ________________ › 500L to ________________ › 4,000L to ______________

30  Where does fresh water come from? › __________________  All of these sources get their water from precipitation

31  Water from crops and plants – direct ___________________  Waste water from homes/businesses – must first go through a _____________ __________ › _____________– septic tank separates out wastes from clean water › _____________ – pipes to sewage treatment plant where water is filtered and cleaned

32

33  Discovery Education “Water Cycle Movie”

34  1. Describe in your own words what fresh water is. How much of the earth’s water is fresh water?  2. Explain how the structures of a water molecule relates to three properties of water.  3. Write a general statement describing the role of the sun’s energy in the water cycle.  4. Draw and label a diagram that traces the path of a water molecule through the water cycle.

35

36  Objectives: › Describe three ways in which fresh water exists on the surface of the earth › Describe a water shed and its drainage systems › Predict what life on earth might be like if freshwater didn’t accumulate on earth’s surface

37  Rain Tracks › Based on your observations, what happens to rainfall that falls on buildings where you live? › What could happen that might change the path of the rainwater?

38  Some areas are forests, some are deserts  Areas are different because of the ___________ __ ____________ there  The amount of water in an area depends on the amount of ______________________

39  Water from rain or melted snow can ______ into ground, ____________, or flow over as _________  Runoff forms rills and gullies to flow into streams and rivers  Running water carries water back to _______ and lets water evaporate into air

40  Streams flow into rivers and rivers flow into oceans forming a _____________________  From above, a drainage system can form a tree- like pattern  ______________ – a small stream that flows into a larger one  ____________ drainage systems have many tributaries

41  Rivers give fresh __________________  Rivers transport __________________  Land along riverbanks is good for ____________ because there is plenty of water and nutrient-rich soil

42  The surrounding land area that supplies ______ to the streams of a drainage system  Can be less than 1 km to thousands of km  Watersheds that supply runoff to different drainage systems are separated by a ridge called a _____________  Rocky Mountains make up the _______________ ______________________ › Streams to the _______ drain to the Atlantic Ocean › Streams to the _______ drain to the Pacific Ocean

43  When running water reaches a low area in a drainage system, it stops flowing  This low area fills with water to become › ________ – form in large, deep depressions – sunlight doesn’t reach bottom › ________ – form in small depressions – sunlight reaches bottom › ________ – artificial lake built to store fresh water or prevent flooding

44  Most of the world’s fresh water is _________  Near the poles, permanent __________ form  Snowfields turn into _____________  During short summers, some of the ice _______ supplying fresh water to many areas

45  ___________ River is the 3 rd longest in the world – has >200 tributaries and 4 th largest watershed  It hasn’t always been in the _______________  About every _________ years it changes course, cutting a new ____________ and abandoning its old one

46  In Louisiana, the Mississippi has been trying to change its course __________ to the Atchafalaya River  If this happened, the port of ____________ would dry up and the cities near the Atchafalaya would flood  The army corps of engineers began a huge flood-control project

47  1. What are three ways in which fresh water exists on the earth’s surface?  2. Describe a watershed and drainage system.  3. What do you think life on earth would be like if there were ne fresh water on the surface?

48

49  Objectives: › Explain what forms groundwater and describe groundwater zones › Describe the movements and activities of groundwater › Predict changes in groundwater › Classify earth materials by permeability

50  Taking in Water › What happens when you water a potted plant? › Where does the water go? › On a global scale, a huge amount of precipitation soaks into the ground. › The amount of water underground is more than all the world’s rivers and lakes combined.

51  The water that _______ into the ground from _______ or melted _____  Groundwater fills in the _____ ________ between dirt and rock particles  _________ – the % of a material’s volume that is pore space  Materials with high porosity can hold _________

52  If pore spaces are well connected, water flows easily through the rock – it is ______________  Permeable rocks › ___________  Impermeable rocks › ___________

53

54  Water from rain or snow soaks into the ground – _________ pulls it down  Once the water reaches an impermeable layer it must __________ _____  When the water can’t spread out any further, the water level __________

55  Groundwater creates two distinct zones  ___________________ – lower - all pore spaces contain water  ___________________ – higher – all pore spaces contain air  _____________ ___– the boundary line between the two zones

56  _____________________ › After lots of rain the water table is higher › After a dry spell water table is lower  ______________________ ______________________ › Impermeable layer close to surface – water table is higher › Impermeable layer deeper – water table is lower

57  __________ – a layer of permeable rock or sediment containing groundwater  Usually form in sandstone, sand, or gravel – above or between impermeable rock layers  Have a _______________ – exposed area where water soaks in  ______________ Aquifer – largest in the U.S. – from South Dakota to Texas

58  Aquifers are important sources of ______ _____  People _____ ______ into the zone of saturation and ________ water out  An _____________ gets water from an opening in a slanted, capped aquifer  Water is forced to the surface by pressure from the aquifer

59  CO2 in air combines with water to form __________ _________  Acidic rainwater chemically reacts with some rocks forming _______ and __________  If water evaporates on ceiling – icicle-like ______________ form  If water evaporates on floor – pillars of minerals or ______________ form

60

61  Groundwater can be heated by contact with: › _______________(western U.S.) › _______________________ (eastern U.S.)  ______________ – any body of water with a temperature higher than the human body’s  ___________ – a fountain of hot water ejected from the ground by superheated steam in underground chambers

62  Water is the __________ __________  As rainwater travels through materials above ground – it dissolves ___________  If the dissolved substances are harmful – the groundwater becomes ___________

63  Old landfills and dumps are a major hazard to groundwater  As rainfall moves through it dissolves chemicals in paints, cleansers, household and industrial wastes

64  _____ _________ have a lining of ______________ clay, asphalt, or plastic  Water containing dissolved chemicals can’t soak through this layer into the ground  After landfill is full, it is __________ with another impermeable layer  Groundwater is then __________ from pollution

65  1. What is groundwater? Describe two distinct groundwater zones.  2. Describe three movements and activities of groundwater.  3. What will happen to the water table in an area during a prolonged drought? What else could affect the water table the same way?  4. Order the following from least to most permeable: gravel, sand, clay, sandstone.

66

67  How are a siphon and an artesian well similar?  Page 334 in textbook

68

69  Groundwater Webquest  techalive.mtu.edu/meec/module04/title.htm

70

71  Read Chapter 14 review – page 335 and complete: › Check Your Vocabulary › Check Your Knowledge

72


Download ppt " Objectives: › Describe the amount of fresh water on earth › Relate the structure of water molecules to the physical and chemical properties of water."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google