2GEOGRAPHY OF AFRICA Continent – not a country Continent is three times larger than EuropeNorthern Africa – desertMid-to-southern Africa – diverse climates and topography
3FOREIGN HISTORY IN AFRICA Greeks controlled Egypt after conquest by Alexander the GreatRomans ruled all areas along the Mediterranean coastline, including northern AfricaArab traders converted many Africans to Islam from the 7th centurySource of slaves for the Americas from the 17th centuryBut little foreign interest in the interior of sub-Saharan Africa
4The “OPENING UP” OF AFRICA Mid-1800sMissionaries and explorers sparked foreign interest in Africa
5DAVID LIVINGSTONE (1813-1873) Scottish missionary – lived in central AfricaExplored AfricaNamed Lake Victoria after the British queenConverted many Africans to ChristianityWrote books on Africa which piqued foreign interest1871 – reported “lost”“Found” by Henry Stanley“Dr. Livingstone, I presume?”
6HENRY STANLEY (1841-1904) Welsh-American reporter “Found” Dr. Livingstone in Africa“Dr. Livingstone, I presume?”Explored AfricaCongo RiverLake TanganyikaLake VictoriaWorked with Belgium’s King Leopold II and his African colonization companyInternational African Society
7KARL PETERS (1856-1918) German explorer in Africa Organized and propagandized for Germany’s colonial expansionFounded the Society for German ColonizationAcquired German East Africa (modern-day Tanzania)Convinced Otto von Bismarck to take over German East Africa and increase Germany’s colonies in Africa
8CECIL RHODES ( )British businessman and politician in southern AfricaMade a fortune from African diamond minesEstablished South African CompanyLand later became Rhodesia (Zimbabwe)Prime minister of Cape Colony ( )Wanted British control over South AfricaWanted Cape-to-Cairo RailroadArchitect of British imperialism in southern AfricaGreat Britain became leading colonial power in southern Africa
10KING LEOPOLD II OF BELGIUM (1835-1909) Took over land in central AfricaBerlin Conference (1885)Leopold’s control over Congo Free State recognized by major powersBelgian Congo (1908)Leopold criticized for the cruelty of his rule in the CongoLeopold forced to sell Congo Free State to Belgian governmentRenamed Belgian Congo
11KING LEOPOLD II OF BELGIUM (1835-1909) Created European race for African colonies – “Scramble for Africa”Diamonds, foodstuffs, gold, ivory, rubber
13What is “Imperialism”?Creating colonies and building empires.
14Why Colonies in Africa? Industrial Revolution Countries needed raw materials to make new goods and these were available in Africa and Latin America:RubberCottonOilTinCopperTeaSugarcocoa
15Why Colonies In Africa? Markets Factories made more goods than the people at home could buy so new markets were needed to sell products.InvestmentsInvestments by rich factory owners in undeveloped areas brought large profits.NationalismColonies will add to the power that the country has.New countries (Italy and Germany) want to catch up with Great Britain and France.
16Why Colonies in Africa?Belief in the need to “civilize” the “backward” peoples of the world.To Europeans, people who had a different way of life and a different religion were “backward”Mission to spread Christianity and Industrialism everywhere.
17Why Colonies in Africa? “Social Darwinism” Promoted the idea of the white European race being superior to others, and thus, fated to rule over others“White Man’s Burden”Poem by Rudyard KiplingDuty of “the white man” to civilize and Christianize the peoples of Africa.
18Colony vs. Protectorate A protectorate is an independent nation, however it is under the protection of another country in exchange for something else.A colony is defined as a territory which is governed by another country. There is no sovereignty (independent rule) for a colony, it is under the direct rule of another country.
20BRITISH IN SOUTHERN AFRICA 1815 – British took Cape Colony from the DutchBoers moved northTransvaal1886 – gold discovered and British moved in1881 and 1895 – British attempted to take Transvaal from the BoersBoer War ( )Dutch led by President Paul KrugerBritish won
21UNION OF SOUTH AFRICA Created in 1910 Included Cape Colony, Orange Free State, Natal, and TransvaalSelf-government
22BRITISH COLONIES IN SOUTHERN AFRICA Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe)Named for Cecil RhodesNorth of Union of South AfricaBechuanaland (now Botswana)1885 – became a British protectorateKenya1888 – became a British protectorate
24BRITISH IN NORTH AFRICA Egypt – in name ruled by Ottoman Turks, but largely independentEuropean capital investmentsSuez Canal opened in 1869Built by the Egyptians and FrenchTaken over by the British (1875)British Prime Minister Benjamin DisraeliBought shares in Suez Canal Company from EgyptEgypt was nearly bankrupt from the expense of building the Suez CanalBritish government became largest shareholder
25EUROPEANS IN EGYPT1870s – with the Egyptian government bankrupt, the British and French took over financial control of the countryEgyptian monarchs (technically Ottoman viceroys) ruled as puppet leaders1882 – Egyptian nationalist rebellionFrance withdrew its troopsGreat Britain left in control of EgyptLord Cromer introduced reformsDe facto British protectorateMade official in 1914Independence came in 1922
26BRITISH IN NORTHERN AFRICA SudanArea south of EgyptUnder Anglo-Egyptian controlCotton needed for British textile millsEntente Cordiale (1904)Great Britain controlled SudanFrance controlled MoroccoCape-to-Cairo RailroadIdea of Cecil RhodesWould secure Great Britain’s dominance in AfricaNever completed – sections missing through modern Sudan and Uganda
27Cape-to-Cairo Railway: Crossing over Victoria Falls
29FRENCH IN AFRICA Algeria 1830 – invasion 1831 – annexation Madagascar 1896 – controlled by FranceSomaliland1880s – partly under French control
30FRENCH IN AFRICA Morocco 1881 – large part under French control 1905 and 1911 – nearly sparked a European war between France and Germany1906 – Algeciras Conference – Germany recognized French rights in Morocco1911 – Agadir Crisis – Germany recognized French protectorate over Morocco in exchange for part of France’s territory in the Congo
31FRENCH IN AFRICA West Africa Late 1800s – largely under French control Sudan1898 – met Britain’s area of control and nearly went to warEntente Cordiale settled British-French disputes in AfricaTunis1881 – controlled by FranceLed Italy to join the Triple Alliance with Austria-Hungary and Germany
32FRENCH IN AFRICA By World War I – 1914 France controlled 3,250,000 square miles in Africa14 times the area of FranceFrance ruled 30,000,000 Africans75% of the population of France
36ITALIANS IN AFRICA 1882-1896 Eritrea (along the Red Sea) Somaliland (along the Indian Ocean, part of today’s Somalia)1896Defeated in attempt to conquer Abyssinia (Ethiopia)1912Won Tripoli from Ottoman Turks
38BELGIANS IN AFRICA1908Belgium gained control of Congo (Congo Free State) from King Leopold IILeopold was infamous for the cruelty of his rule in the CongoCongo Free State (today’s Democratic Republic of Congo)80 times the size of BelgiumSource of uranium
42SPANISH IN AFRICA Spain had very few possessions in Africa Tip of MoroccoRio de OroRio Muni
43AFRICANS IN AFRICA Only 2 independent African countries By the time of the First World War (1914)Only 2 independent African countriesAbyssinia (Ethiopia)Ruled by dynasty stretching back to at least the 13th centuryLast emperor was Haile Selassie, deposed in 1974Home to Ethiopian Orthodox Christian ChurchLiberiaFormed by freed slaves under auspices of the United States government
44Berlin Conference ofThe Berlin Conference of 1884–85 was a meeting between European nations to create rules on how to peacefully divide Africa among them for colonization. The conference was convened by Portugal but led by Otto von Bismarck, chancellor of the newly united Germany. Though invited, the U.S. declined to participate.The resulting agreement, the General Act of the 1885 Conference of Berlin, banned the slave trade in name (though not in reality, especially in the Belgian-controlled Congo Free State) but otherwise encouraged European nations to aggressively colonize and exploit Africa's human and natural resources or to lose their claims under the Principle of Effectivity, which allowed signatories of the agreement to jump each other's claims if the claims were not being fully exploited. (www.chegg.com)
46REVIEW QUESTIONS What led to the “Scramble for Africa”? Which European nations controlled the most land in Africa?Who led British imperialism in Africa?Which African nations were left independent at the time of World War I?
47Scramble for Africa video: Video on ColonialismChild SoldiersBlood Diamonds