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Consultant Neurologist - Ahmedabad, INDIA Director of Neurosciences – Sterling Hospital Head, Department of Neurology – VSGH, AHD Hon. Professor of Neurology.

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Presentation on theme: "Consultant Neurologist - Ahmedabad, INDIA Director of Neurosciences – Sterling Hospital Head, Department of Neurology – VSGH, AHD Hon. Professor of Neurology."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Consultant Neurologist - Ahmedabad, INDIA Director of Neurosciences – Sterling Hospital Head, Department of Neurology – VSGH, AHD Hon. Professor of Neurology – K.M.School

3 SCIENTIFIC EVIDENCE OF MEDITATION July, 2007 Jaina, New Jersey MEDITATION, ITS TECHNIQUES AND ITS SCIENCE

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5 Why Meditation ?

6 We exist in two forms : body and mind. We exist in two forms : body and mind. At some stage you realize that peace and happiness is not outside. At some stage you realize that peace and happiness is not outside. The quest for the god. The quest for the god. All great people have done meditation. All great people have done meditation.

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8 What is meditation Exercise of mind to keep it healthy and clean, as we do for body. A state of altered consciousness. Fourth stage of consciousness. Spiritual ecstasy with neurological manifestation. Not really a Hallucination

9 Meditation

10 Rituals Morality Character CharityRELIGION Karmayoga Devotion Philosophy Meditation Spirituality

11 What is meditation? Definitions Stability of mind Wavering of mind is stopped Concentration on one target Unified thought process Thoughtlessness Introspection Lack of activity To leave, to give away Mental aerobics Intentional self regulation Dedication Patanjali Buddha Narad

12 Meditation : advantages Physical, mental and emotional health. Cure / control of psychosomatic disorders including high blood pressure, coronary artery disease, DM, asthma, rheumatism etc. Stress relief. Spiritual health. Better concentration and sharpness. Produces relaxation and reduces reactivity. Job performance. Interpersonal relations. Control of anger and conquering fear.

13 Brings change of attitude Inner peace, patience and happiness. Cultivates and promotes positive emotions and removes negative thoughts. Control over thought process. Improved quality of life. Intuitive knowledge, healing power, magnetic personality and occult powers. Meditation : advantages

14 Meditation is an antidote to stress The neuro chemistry and neuro physiology of meditation is just the reverse of stress. Stress : Over activity of Sympathetic system. Meditation: Over activity of Parasympathetic system.

15 Caution However, it is not a push button system, you need patience. Hence there is a 90 to 95% -drop out rate. You need to have right guide, right method, correct understanding, appropriate place, constant practice, extreme faith and full conviction. Please do not sleep. Meditation industry is at height, because of commercialization, so one should be careful.

16 Meditation is hard work. It demands the highest form of discipline which comes through constant awareness, not only of the things about you outwardly, but also inwardly. - J. Krishnamurti

17 The Real Purpose Of Meditation Elimination of Ego Elimination of Mind

18 MEDITATION : PHILOSOPHICAL PURPOSE Philosophical self realization God realization Total bliss (total relief of pain) Total liberation

19 Meditation techniques Focus on Breathing Focus on an object Focus on a sound Focus on a thought Focus on sensual object Focus on sensory perception Imagery Soul meditation

20 Meditation Practice Choosing a place and atmosphere Sitting Posture Time of meditation Importance of Consistent Practice Mental attitude – “bare attention,” or neutral witness Pure moment-to-moment awareness, or mindfulness Non-judgmental inner listening, equanimity -WARMING UP- Prayer Pranayama……… internet connection……... Broadband

21 Meditation : methods   Jain Dhyana   Preksha Dhyana   Vipashyana   Patanjal Dhyana   Anapan Sati   Smriti Upasthan   Spand Dhyana   Mantra Dhyana   Nabhi Dhyana   Swapna Dhyana   Nidra Dhyana   Yoga nidra   Nyas   Mrutyu Dhyana   T.S Meditation   Kayotsarga   Tratak   Suryasamyam   Adarshdhyana (mirror)   Swaminarayan Dhyana   Arup Dhyana   Purnayoga Dhyana   Atit Dhyana (past)   Bhavidhyana (future)   Sarpalanchan Dhyana   Samarpana Dhyana   Tathata   Hoo-Dhyana (Dynamic Meditation)   Sahaj Dhyana   Your own system

22 Meditation Jaindhyana Jain religion is Bhavadharma, so meditation is of utmost importance. Jain religion is Bhavadharma, so meditation is of utmost importance. Dharmadhyana & shukladhyana… Dharmadhyana & shukladhyana… excellent remedy for all types of health. excellent remedy for all types of health. Several types of meditations. Several types of meditations. Samayik & kayotsarga are super meditations. Samayik & kayotsarga are super meditations. Preksha, vipashyana, granthibheda Preksha, vipashyana, granthibheda Atmadhyana. Atmadhyana. Jain religion is Bhavadharma, so meditation is of utmost importance. Jain religion is Bhavadharma, so meditation is of utmost importance. Dharmadhyana & shukladhyana… Dharmadhyana & shukladhyana… excellent remedy for all types of health. excellent remedy for all types of health. Several types of meditations. Several types of meditations. Samayik & kayotsarga are super meditations. Samayik & kayotsarga are super meditations. Preksha, vipashyana, granthibheda Preksha, vipashyana, granthibheda Atmadhyana. Atmadhyana.

23 Samayik :- Samatvabhava - karmanirjara - way to liberation Samayik :- Samatvabhava - karmanirjara - way to liberation Samata towards living beings : No raga – dwesha Samata towards living beings : No raga – dwesha Samata towards objects : No moha – shoka Samata towards objects : No moha – shoka Pratikraman Pratikraman Samatva followed by meditation & KayotsagraSamatva followed by meditation & Kayotsagra with six requisites (Shad Avashyak) with six requisites (Shad Avashyak) Creates blissful state. Creates blissful state. Presence of Gurudeva – so you are Presence of Gurudeva – so you are stress free, guilt free, disease free. This is followed by prayaschita and sadhana Prayaschitta takes care of past tense Prayaschitta takes care of past tense Vishuddhi takes care of present tenseVishuddhi takes care of present tense Vishalya takes care of future tenseVishalya takes care of future tense Samayik :- Samatvabhava - karmanirjara - way to liberation Samayik :- Samatvabhava - karmanirjara - way to liberation Samata towards living beings : No raga – dwesha Samata towards living beings : No raga – dwesha Samata towards objects : No moha – shoka Samata towards objects : No moha – shoka Pratikraman Pratikraman Samatva followed by meditation & KayotsagraSamatva followed by meditation & Kayotsagra with six requisites (Shad Avashyak) with six requisites (Shad Avashyak) Creates blissful state. Creates blissful state. Presence of Gurudeva – so you are Presence of Gurudeva – so you are stress free, guilt free, disease free. This is followed by prayaschita and sadhana Prayaschitta takes care of past tense Prayaschitta takes care of past tense Vishuddhi takes care of present tenseVishuddhi takes care of present tense Vishalya takes care of future tenseVishalya takes care of future tense

24 Atmadhyana Meditating on the soul is one of the best meditations. Meditating on the soul is one of the best meditations. To remain constantly aware of the soul and its characteristics and its functions. To dissociate soul from the body at every moment and the sentinence – the application of knowledge is the ultimate meditation. To remain constantly aware of the soul and its characteristics and its functions. To dissociate soul from the body at every moment and the sentinence – the application of knowledge is the ultimate meditation. Samayam api ma pamayae GOYAMA ! Samayam api ma pamayae GOYAMA !

25 Thought SPECT studies : Mana, vachana, kaya, Pudgala.

26 Meditation-Techniques Prekshadhyana : To see –To observe ( Jain Method-Lord Mahavir) Acharya Tulsiji – Acharya Mahapragyaji - Breathing (Shwas-Preksha) - Thoughts (Vichar-Preksha) - Body (Sharir-Preksha) - Mind (Anupreksha) - Leshyadhyana etc. Prerequisites : Mitahaar, Mitbhashan, Maitri, Pratikriya - Shunyakriya, Bhavkriya Truth, Non-violence, non-stealing, celibacy and non-collectiveness

27 Meditation-Techniques Vipashyana : To see –To observe ( Buddha) Goenkaji through mahasi sayado Breathing – control of emotions & perversions Thoughts Body and perception of sensations control of Raga and Dwesha

28 Vipashyana Calm and quiet mind Awake and attentive mind Equanimous mind

29 PATANJAL RAJ YOGA Yama : Nonviolence, truth, non-stealing celibacy and aparigriha (Non-collectiveness) Niyama : Purity, Penance (Austerity) Satisfaction Spiritual learning Worship & dedication Asana : Pranayama : Pratyaahar : Dharna : Dhyana : Samadhi :

30 Meditation over an object, place or thought object, place or thought

31 Basic Instructions for Meditation To bring the attention to the breath, but not to control the breathing. It is not pranayama. Give full attention to the feeling of the breath as it goes in and out. Dwell in the present, moment by moment, breath by breath. Observe your mind with moment-to-moment awareness. Anapan Sati

32 When attention wanders, note it and then gently bring awareness back to the breath. Why breathing ? Truth, vital, secular, present tense, carrier of mind – Emotions, thoughts, and perversions Continue to watch the breath, accepting each moment as it is for 1 hour. Not to loose single breath - The power of ‘NOW’ - The concept of VOID When breathing takes consciousness into each cell, there is a vital dance Basic Instructions for Meditation

33 Meditation-Techniques Anapan Sati : Concentration on breathing Smriti Upasthan : Observation & awareness of thoughts Budhha, Krishnamurti Avoid conflict with mind. The route cause of miseries is thought Study beginning, end, structure & content of thoughts. Study movement of mind and feel separated This will lead to detachment with thoughts. Observer will realize that himself is being observed. Purnayoga : Maharishi Aurobindo’s method of combination Yoga

34 Sudarshan kriya Art of living course has changed thousands of lives Sri Sri Ravishankarji

35 SILENCE / CONTEMPLATION In the silence of the heart God speaks Let God fill us, then only we speak. Do small things with great love.

36 The fruit of silence…..is Prayer The fruit of Prayer….. is Faith The fruit of Faith……..is love The fruit of Love …….is Service - Mother Teresa

37 The Sound of Om in a Drop of Oil CHANTING MEDITATION "Since all things are made by the power of sound, of vibration, so can we create this world by the same power. The knowledge of sound is supreme, for it is beyond all form. By the knowledge of sound we obtain the knowledge of creation, And the mastery of that knowledge helps us to rise to the formless. This knowledge acts as our wings, helping us to rise from the earth to heaven and penetrate through life seen and unseen." -- Pir Hazrat Inayat Khan To do chanting on mantra, its meaning and vibration

38 A Yantra is a graphic representation of the sound of Mantra

39 Mr. Emoto decided to see how thoughts and words affected the formation of untreated, distilled water crystals by typing words onto paper and then taping them on glass bottles overnight. These are effects of the words “Love and Appreciation” These are the effects of “You make me sick. I will kill you!” Effect of sound chanting

40 Mr. Emoto decided to see what effects music had upon the structure of water. He placed distilled water between two speakers for several hours while playing music and then photographed the crystals that formed after the water was frozen. The results of the effects of these two very different types of music speak for themselves. This is the effect of Bach’s “Air for the G String” This is the effects of Heavy Metal Music

41 " The seed of the spiritual is found in the physical. In the heart of the cells, in the spiral of the DNA, is written the divine story. When scientific research, spiritual practice and artistic expression work together, heaven and earth are in resonance. This is the vibratory promise which is the gift of our musical universe." - Fabien Maman This is a picture showing a healthy hemoglobin cell exposed to a voice singing of the note G '392'. The cell clearly is pulsing with vibrancy and life as it entrains to the frequency of the sound, becoming clearly more alive and healthy. It appears to actually soak up the sound, until it eventually pulses and emits the sound.

42 Mindfulness Practice Observing the body and mind intentionally Letting experiences unfold from moment to moment and accepting them as they are. Observing thoughts without getting caught up in them. No effort to control anything except the focus and direction of the attention. Not a passive process, yet does not involve trying to get anywhere. Eating meditation, sitting meditation, working meditation and meditation during each act is the goal of mindfulness practice.

43 DHYANA YOGA Perfect relaxation Observer ship Non Decisiveness Dynamic Meditation

44 Transcendental Meditation (TM) Movement founded by Maharshi Mahesh Yogi of India. Movement founded by Maharshi Mahesh Yogi of India.

45 T.S.MEDITATION

46 Meditation : methods   Jain Dhyana   Patanjal Dhyana   Anapan Sati   Smriti Upasthan   Vipashyana   Preksha Dhyana   Spand Dhyana   Mantra Dhyana   Nabhi Dhyana   Swapna Dhyana   Nidra Dhyana   Yoga nidra   Nyas   Mrutyu Dhyana   T.S Meditation   Kayotsarga   Tratak   Suryasamyam   Adarshdhyana (mirror)   Swaminarayan Dhyana   Arup Dhyana   Purnayoga Dhyana   Atit Dhyana (past)   Bhavidhyana (future)   Sarpalanchan Dhyana   Samarpana Dhyana   Tathata   Hoo-Dhyana (Dynamic Meditation)   Sahaj Dhyana   Your own system

47 First Practice Silence of body, speech and learn to get isolated

48 Our Experience Anatomical & Conceptual Design Related Science Diagnostic Methods Related Medical Healing Rx Bliss Oneness With God Spirit Soul Higher Consciousness Religion Spirituality Knowing Awareness Self Healing Prayer Spiritual Counseling Religious Affirmation Dreams Trance Meditative State Question What is Your Goal? How are you reacting To current Situation? Unconsciousness No Mind Family Consciousness Quantum Physics 5 th SOUL Dream Interpret Dowsing Hypnotherapy Labyrinth Garden Radioing /Magnets Regression Therapy Systemic Family Therapy 4 th Intuitive Body How do you React to your Feelings? Beliefs Attitudes Thoughts Mind: Consciousness & Unconsciousness (logical) Psychology Mind-Body Medicine Psychological Testing Psychotherapy Music Therapy Bio-feedback Deep Meditation Guided Imagery 3 rd Mental Body What do you Feel? Feeling Emotions Nervous System Meridians Chakras Physiology Functional Medicine Kinesiology Thermogram EEG/EKG/EMG Laughter Therapy Aroma Therapy Massage Reiki Light Meditation Acupuncture 2 nd Electrical Regulation Body How is illness Affecting your Physical Body? 5 senses Movement Structure Bones, cells Biochemistry Mechanics Chemistry Pathologic/ Allopathic Medicine Physical Exam Laboratory Test Imaging: X-Ray CT Scan MRI Drugs Surgery Herbs/Vitamins Physical Medicine Supplements Organ Support 1 st Physical Body INTEGRATIVE MODEL TO HEALTH AND HEALING

49 Researching the Benefits of on Meditation : With 7 weeks of meditation, cancer patients decreased their degree of depression, anxiety, anger, confusion, and chest and stomach symptoms by 50% - and felt more vigor. With 10 weeks of meditation, 2/3’s of chronic pain patients had a 30% reduction in pain, and half had more than a 50% reduction. With 10 weeks of meditation, chronic pain patients had less pain, less mood disturbances, used less pain medication, and could be more active. The benefits were still present one year later. Three years after an 8-week meditation instruction, patients with anxiety and panic disorders still showed a benefit. All patients with fibromyalgia who meditated for 10 weeks improved, and over half showed moderate to marked improvement in pain, fatigue and quality of sleep. Medical benefits of meditation

50 Meditation has been found to be quite useful in most of the psychosomatic disorders including asthma, rheumatism, gut problems, blood pressure, diabetes etc. With 6 weeks of meditation irritable bowel syndrome patients had less flatulance, belching, bloating and diarrhea. Even though daily fluctuations in cortisol are unchanged, people who meditate don’t have the daily fluctuations in the cortisol- stimulating hormone (ACTH), or beta-endorphins, suggesting a change in feedback sensitivity. People trained in and performing an imagery-based relaxation prior to injection, had less inflammatory reaction to chili pepper “extract” (capsaicin) injected under the skin. With 6 months of meditation, athletes had less increase in the CD8+ suppressor T cell response to strenuous physical stress, improving the immune system’s helper to suppressor cell ratio. It also reduces post-traumatic stress. Medical benefits of meditation

51 Patients who meditated during ultraviolet light treatment for psoriasis had quicker clearing of their skin disease. Patients who meditated during ultraviolet light treatment for psoriasis had quicker clearing of their skin disease. With 6 months of meditating for 20 minutes twice a day, hypertensive African Americans had a decrease in the carotid artery wall thickness. With 6 months of meditating for 20 minutes twice a day, hypertensive African Americans had a decrease in the carotid artery wall thickness. With 4 years of daily meditation, coronary artery narrowing showed regression rather than progression. With 4 years of daily meditation, coronary artery narrowing showed regression rather than progression. Over a 5 year period, people who meditated had over 50% less doctor’s office visits, and an average of 50% less hospital admissions (including a reduction all 17 major treatment categories such as benign and malignant tumors, heart disease, infectious disease, and nervous system disorders). Only childbirth rates were the unchanged. Over a 5 year period, people who meditated had over 50% less doctor’s office visits, and an average of 50% less hospital admissions (including a reduction all 17 major treatment categories such as benign and malignant tumors, heart disease, infectious disease, and nervous system disorders). Only childbirth rates were the unchanged. Medical benefits of meditation

52 STATISTICS Physicians, Psychotherapists, and other Professionals are increasingly adding Meditative Techniques to their practice. Physicians, Psychotherapists, and other Professionals are increasingly adding Meditative Techniques to their practice. Over six thousand Physicians have begun the practice of Transcendental Meditation and regularly recommend the TM technique to their patients. Over six thousand Physicians have begun the practice of Transcendental Meditation and regularly recommend the TM technique to their patients. Many Physicians consider Meditation a key element of an Integrated Health Program. Many Physicians consider Meditation a key element of an Integrated Health Program.

53 Health Conditions in which Yoga may help heal or treat Arthritis Arthritis Allergies Allergies Asthma Asthma Hypertension Hypertension Coronary Artery Disease Coronary Artery Disease Irritable Bowel Syndrome Irritable Bowel Syndrome Heartburn (GERD) Heartburn (GERD) Constipation Constipation Tension Headaches and Migraines Tension Headaches and Migraines PMS and Menstrual Discomfort PMS and Menstrual Discomfort Menopause Menopause Pain of the Back, Hips, Knees Pain of the Back, Hips, Knees Depression & Anxiety Depression & Anxiety Substance Abuse Substance Abuse Skin Disorders Skin Disorders Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Overweight Overweight Sleep Problems Sleep Problems

54 Physiology of Meditation Meditation produces a specific physiological response pattern that involves various biological systems. Mechanisms producing meditative effects include metabolic, autonomic, endocrine, neurological, and psychological manifestation. Physiological response to meditation occurs on a multidimensional, interactive basis.

55 Effect of meditation BETA: Alert/Working waves per second ALPHA: Relaxed/Reflecting 8-13 waves per second THETA: Drowsy/Meditating 4-7 waves per second DELTA: Sleep/Dreaming 3-4 waves per second DELTA: Deep & Dreamless Sleep.5-2 waves per sec

56 BETA brainwaves are the fastest frequencies ranging from 14 cycles per second up to 38 cycles per second. Beta is your normal thinking state, your active external awareness and thought process. Without beta you would not be able to function in the outside world.

57 ALPHA brainwaves are the brainwaves of relaxed detached awareness, visualization, sensory imagery and light reverie. Ranging between about 8 cycles per second and 13 cycles per second, alpha is the gateway to meditation and provides a bridge between the conscious and the subconscious mind.

58 Important features of EEG changes related to meditation are : Important features of EEG changes related to meditation are : Establishing alpha activity in spite of open eyes Establishing alpha activity in spite of open eyes Increased amplitude of alpha activity Increased amplitude of alpha activity Slower frequency of alpha rhythm Slower frequency of alpha rhythm Rhythmical theta waves Rhythmical theta waves Increased synchronization ( hypersynchronization) Increased synchronization ( hypersynchronization) Dissociation of perception from the external sense organs Dissociation of perception from the external sense organs Transcendent signal Transcendent signal Occasional fast wave activity Occasional fast wave activity

59 THETA brainwaves are the subconscious mind. Ranging from about 4 cycles per second up to 8 cycles per second, theta is present in dreaming sleep and provides the experience of deep meditation when you meditate. Theta also contains the storehouse of creative inspiration and is where you often have your spiritual connection. Theta provides the peak in the peak experience

60 DELTA brainwaves are your unconscious mind, the sleep state, ranging from about 4 cycles per second down to 0.5 cycles per second. But when present in combination with other waves in a waking state, Delta acts as a form of radar – seeking out information – reaching out to understand on the deepest unconscious level things that we can't understand through thought process. Delta provides intuition, empathetic attunement, and instinctual insight.

61 The MEDITATION brainwave pattern is a combination of alpha and theta where theta provides the depth and profundity of the meditation experience – the subconscious inner space from which creativity, insight, and healing spring – and alpha provides the bridge, or the link, to the conscious thinking mind so that you can actually remember the contents of your meditation.

62 AWAKENED MIND brainwave pattern It is a brainwave pattern shared by people in higher states of consciousness regardless of their philosophy, theology or meditation technique. This brainwave pattern can be found during “peak experience” and in all forms of creativity and high performance

63 Neuroelectrical Effects   Mediation was shown to - increase Alpha (8-13 Hz or cycles per second) production - increase Theta (4-7 Hz) production - increase high Beta ( Hz) activity ( with experienced meditators).   Alpha patterns are associated with calm and focused attention.   Theta patterns are associated with reverie, imagery, and creativity.   High Beta activity is associated with highly focused concentration

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65 Neurophysiology of Meditation   Imaging, such as rCBF (regional Cerebral Blood Flow), real time MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging), MEG (magnetoencephalography), and improved EEG (electoencephalography) allow detailed studies in understanding the effects of meditation on neural behavior.   SPECT study shows- Parietal area of the brain is responsible for giving us a sense of our orientation in space and time. By blocking all sensory and cognitive input into this area, meditation results in the sense of no space and no time.

66 temporal resolution spatial resolution neurons cms ms minutes meg -eeg seeg pet fmri DYNAMIC BRAIN MAPPING

67 SPECT Images at Baseline and During Meditation BaselineMeditation Prefrontal Cortex

68 Superior Parietal Lobe Superior Parietal Lobe Baseline Meditation SPECT Images at Baseline and During Meditation

69 Baseline Scan LIMBIC Comparison of Baseline to Prayer : Limbic inhibition LIMBIC Prayer Scan

70 Superior Parietal Lobe Superior Parietal Lobe Baseline ScanPrayer Scan Comparison of Baseline to Prayer

71 Part of the Brain P-valueBaseline Mean Meditatio n Mean Percent Change SD Anterior Cingulate Cingulate Body DLPFC Inferior Frontal Midbrain Orbital Frontal Cortex Posterior Cingulate Sensorimotor Thalamus Results from Meditation SPECT Study

72   Increase rCBF in frontal lobe and shut down of rCBF in OAA in parietal lobe is the key finding.   This is not hallucination.   All Meditators have same findings. Summary of SPECT findings

73 fMRI changes during Meditation

74 Results Significant signal increases were observed in the dorsolateral prefrontal and parietal cortices, hippocampus/parahippocampus, temporal lobe, pregenual anterior cingulate cortex, striatum, and pre- and post-central gyri during meditation. Significant signal increases were observed in the dorsolateral prefrontal and parietal cortices, hippocampus/parahippocampus, temporal lobe, pregenual anterior cingulate cortex, striatum, and pre- and post-central gyri during meditation. This indicates that the practice of meditation activates neural structures involved in attention and control of the autonomic nervous system. This indicates that the practice of meditation activates neural structures involved in attention and control of the autonomic nervous system. – Neuroreport May 15;11(7): Functional brain mapping of the relaxation response and meditation. Lazar SW,…, Benson H.

75 Neurochemical Effects   Meditation has been shown to increase serotonin production. Serotonin is an important neurotransmitter and neuropeptide that influences mood and behavior in many ways.Serotonin   Meditation has also been associated with increased melatonin availability

76 Neurochemical Changes During Meditation Neurochemical Observed ChangeCNS Structure Arginine Vasopressin IncreasedSupraoptic Nucleus GABA Increased Thalamus, other inhibitory structures Melatonin IncreasedPineal Gland Serotonin IncreasedDorsal Raphe Dopamine IncreasedBasal Gangia Cortisol Decreased Paraventricular Nucleus Norepinephrine DecreasedLocus Ceruleus β-Endorphin Rhythm changed; levels unaltered Arcuate Nucleus

77 Meditation and the Autonomic Nervous System An increase in the skin resistance. Galvanic skin responses, showed that meditators recovered from stress more quickly than non-meditators. Decreased limbic arousal in the brain-reduces stress and increases autonomic stability to stress. Reduction in limbic arousal may explain how meditation strengthens and enhances the ability to cope with stress.

78 Meditation and the Central Nervous System   The practice of meditation decreases muscle reflex time.   Accelerates neural conduction or augments the release of neurotransmitters, thereby decreasing synaptic time, resulting in a change in muscle firing threshold and pattern.   By inhibiting the left cortical hemisphere, the sense of time and logic no longer dominate consciousness during meditation.Suppression of Ego faculty and later on Mind.

79 The Plausible Hypothesis When meditation acts as a constant repetitive stimulus, certain permanent qualitative and quantitative changes develop in nervous system. Neurotransmitters and neuromodulators may stimulate growth of dormant neurons to develop a centre higher than neocortex- God module. This higher centre will exert inhibitory control over present neocortex and thereby over mind as a whole- thereby suppressing consciousness and all mental activities. Spiritual ascent is from the least evolved state of consciousness to near perfect state with which the mind itself will cease to be and there will remain only non-dual experience.

80 Meditation and the Endocrine System Reduced blood levels of lactate, cortisol, and epinephrine. Reduces sympathetic adrenergic receptor sensitivity, producing a decreased response to stressful situations. Increased levels of gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA), melatonin and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate. Meditation produces its anxiolytic effects by promoting GABA action in specific areas of the brain. Similar effects can be achieved by Reiki, Acupuncture.

81 Meditation and Metabolism A wakeful state accompanied by decreased metabolism. Decreased breathing pattern, decreased heart rate, and decreased blood pressure. Blood flow to the kidneys and liver declined in the practitioners, with an increase in cardiac output. Decrease in the level of oxygen utilization and carbon dioxide elimination by muscles. The metabolic changes arise from a natural reduction in metabolic activity at the cellular level, not from a forced reduction of breathing. Longevity and delayed aging !

82 Meditation and Psychology Practice of meditation improves cognitive task performance, increases mental concentration, and reduces susceptibility to stress. Both subjective and objective examinations reveal that meditation enhances perceptual sensitivity. It improves the attitude and personality of a person.

83 Attitude “ The Longer I live, the more I realize the impact of attitude on life. Attitude to me, is more important than facts. It is more important than the past, than education, successes, than what other people think or say or do. It is more important than appearance, giftedness or skill. It will make or break a company…….. a church…. a home. The remarkable thing is we have a choice every day regarding the attitude we will embrace for that day. We can not change our past..... we cannot change the fact that people will act in a certain way. We cannot change the inevitable. The only thing we can do is to play on the only string we have, and that is our attitude……. I am convinced that life is 10% what happens to me and 90% how I react to it. And so it is with you….. We are in charge of our Attitudes ”. - Charles Swindoll

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85 Four way Truth That there is a problem That there is a cause That there is a way If you follow the path, you will get the solution

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89 WAIT AND MEDITATE, TILL I CALL YOU BACK - Swami Vivekananda

90 REFERENCES Jain Agam Dhyana Dipika, Dhyana Shatak Patanjal Yoga Sutra Holy Vedas, Puranas and Upanishadas Tripitak Dhyana Yoga - Swami Vivekananda Meditation - Osho Dhyana Kumbh - Suresh Vakil Meditations - J.Krishnamurti ‘Why God will not go away’ – Andrew Newberg Medical References from several journals

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93 Decrease in Beta-wave activity after meditation

94 Meditation Alex Grey (Harvard anatomist and artist)

95 Happiness “Spirituality is difficult to define or measure…[but is essentially] a journey toward, or experience of, connection with the source of ultimate meaning. Spirituality includes connection with one’s self, with others, with nature, and with a higher power. This connection is often with a greater story that makes sense of one’s life. Spirituality may or may not involve formal religion.” “Spirituality is difficult to define or measure…[but is essentially] a journey toward, or experience of, connection with the source of ultimate meaning. Spirituality includes connection with one’s self, with others, with nature, and with a higher power. This connection is often with a greater story that makes sense of one’s life. Spirituality may or may not involve formal religion.” —Gregory Plotnikoff MD, Director, Univ of Minnesota Center for Spirituality and Healing, from Rakel,Textbook of Integrative Medicine

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97 Functional Mapping of Meditation Meditation is a conscious mental process that induces a set of integrated physiologic changes termed the “relaxation response” by Herbert Benson. Meditation is a conscious mental process that induces a set of integrated physiologic changes termed the “relaxation response” by Herbert Benson. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to identify and characterize the brain regions that are active during a simple form of meditation. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to identify and characterize the brain regions that are active during a simple form of meditation.


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