Presentation on theme: "Standards 5.1 Examine the effects of various kitchen designs, tools, equipment and technology on food preparation. 5.2 Apply basic food preparation principles."— Presentation transcript:
Standards 5.1 Examine the effects of various kitchen designs, tools, equipment and technology on food preparation. 5.2 Apply basic food preparation principles when preparing selected foods. 5.3 Identify science principles of food preparation. Vegetables and Fruits
Journal Do you eat more canned fruit, or fresh fruit? Do you eat more canned vegetables, or fresh vegetables? Why? List at least five factors of why you may eat canned/fresh fruit or vegetables.
Nutrients in Vegetables and Fruits Low in fat and sodium No cholesterol High in carbohydrates Full of important micro-nutrients, including antioxidants-substances that may lower the risk of some cancers and heart diseases. Vitamin C-kiwi, strawberries, cantaloupe, cabbage, and potatoes. Vitamin E-Apples and warm-weather fruits such as apricots, nectarines, and peaches (Vitamin E)Cruciferous Vegetables-bok choy, broccoli, brussels sprouts, collards, kale, mustard greens, and turnips. Beta carotene-the body uses this phytochemical-a health promoting substance found in foods form plants-to make Vitamin A. Found in yellow or orange vegetables and fruits, as well as in cruciferous vegetables.
Types of Vegetables Vegetables can come from many different edible plant parts. Roots-Carrots, beets, and turnips are examples of root vegetables. Leaves-spinach, lettuce, and cooking greens such as collards are leafy vegetables. Tubers- A tuber is a large underground stem that stores nutrients. Potatoes are tubers. Bulbs-Onions and garlic are examples of bulbs. Made up of layers of fleshy leaves surrounding part of the stem. Flowers-Broccoli is an example of a vegetable that includes the flowers of the plant, along with the attached stem. Seeds-Corn, beans and peas are the seeds of the plants themselves. Seeds are high in carbohydrates and other nutrients because they are the part of the plant from which new plants grow.
Types of Fruits Many kinds of melons, from cantaloupe to casaba. Citrus fruits, including grapefruit, oranges, and tangerines. Berries-raspberries, strawberries, blueberries, and grapes. Many kinds of apple and pears. Cherries, plums, peaches, apricots, and other drupes (fruits with a central pit enclosing a single seed). Tropical fruits-bananas, pineapple, papayas, kiwifruit, and mangoes.
Buying Fresh Produce Sold loose, in a bag, or a plastic covered tray. Guidelines for buying produce: Stains on the package or unpleasant odor may be a telltale sign that item is damaged or spoiled. Avoid produce that looks wilted, shriveled, bruised, or decayed. Buy top quality vegetables and fruits for more nutrients for your money and will last longer. Buy only what you can store and use. Most high quality vegetables and fruits last about a week in the refrigerator. Buy by weight when possible, except for leafy vegetables, vegetables and fruits should feel heavy for their size.
Ripeness Mature fruits-fruits that have reached their full size and color. Ripe fruits-fruits that are tender and have a pleasant aroma and fully developed flavor. ----Buy ripe, if you plan to use them right away, or less ripe, if you plan to use them several days later. Won’t Ripen After HarvestWill Ripen After Harvest ApplesApricots BerriesAvocados GrapefruitBananas OrangesKiwifruit Pineapples Mangoes Tangerines Nectarines Peaches Pears
Storing Fresh Produce Unless produce is dirty, it should not be washed until you are ready to use it. Added moisture will speed up the action of bacteria, causing spoilage. Can also cause mold to grow. Storing unripe fruits-faster ripening, place them in a brown paper bag at room temperature. Slower ripening-refrigerate. Storing potatoes, sweet potatoes, and onions-store in cool, dark, dry place degrees F. If refrigerated, onions and sweet potatoes will mold and decay, and the flavor of potatoes will change as their starch turns to sugar.
Storing con’t If you use plastic bags for storage, punch holes in them so that some of the moisture can escape. Some get soggy and cause the produce to decay or turn moldy.
Convenience Vegetables and Fruits Canned and frozen vegetables can be stored longer than fresh produce and be prepared quickly. Often cost less then fresh produce, yet provide similar amounts of vitamins and minerals. Juices are also convenient and refreshing. You can buy vegetable and fruit juices, bottles, cartons, cans, or as frozen concentrate.
Quick and Easy Convenience Fruits Tips for using canned, frozen, and dried fruits: To serve frozen fruits, thaw only partially. The ice crystals that remain will help the fruit stay firm. Dried fruits are sweet and chewy-a concentrated form of energy. They can be eaten as snacks, cooked, or used in recipes.
Buying Convenience Vegetables and Fruits ChallengesSolutions Canned fruits are often high in added sugarLook for fruits packed in natural juice instead of sugar syrup. Canned vegetables are often high in sodiumLook for low-sodium varieties. Drain the liquid from high-sodium vegetables before heating. Some frozen vegetables are relatively expensive. Buy frozen vegetables in bags. They cost less than those in boxes. Buy plain vegetables without sauces and other extras. Add your own special touches, such as sprinkling of herbs.
Preparing Raw Vegetables and Fruits Before you eat or cook any fresh vegetables or fruit, you need to WASH IT. Washing removes pesticides residues, dirt, and pathogens. Even vegetables that are going to be peeled need to be washed first to prevent transferring pesticides and dirt to the edible parts. For tender vegetables and fruits, wash thoroughly in cool, clear water. Remove all visible dirt. To minimize nutrient loss, do not soak produce in water.
Cutting Fresh Produce Cutting vegetables and fruits into pieces makes them easier to eat and adds eye appeal. Keep the chunks fairly large when cutting, and serve them as soon as possible to retain the nutrients. Sweet peppers, carrots, and zucchini can be presented as strips. Tomatoes and peaches can be cut into wedges. Some fruits turn dark after they are cut. This discoloration, which results from the exposure of a fruit’s flesh to the air, is called enzymatic browning. Dipping fruits into some form of ascorbic acid as soon as they are cut can stop enzymatic browning from occurring. (Lemon juice)
Cooking Vegetables and Fruits Cooking causes changes in vegetables and fruits. It is a loss of vitamin C and other nutrients. You can minimize these losses when cooking by: Keeping vegetables an fruits whole or in large pieces. Cooking them quickly using methods that require only a small amount of water, ex. Steaming, simmering in a tightly covered pan, or microwaving. Serving cooked vegetable and fruits with the cooking liquid whenever possible.
Sensory Changes in Cooked Vegetables and Fruits Texture-heat softens the cell walls, making vegetables and fruits more tender. Many vegetables such as green beans and winter squash, must be cooked to be edible. –When overcooked vegetables and fruits become mushy. Color-when properly cooked, vegetables and fruits retain pleasing colors. Green vegetables get their color from chlorophyll, the chemical compound that plants use to turn the sun’s energy into food. When overcooked, green vegetables can turn an unpleasant olive green. Flavor-the heat of cooking releases flavors, making them more noticeable. Herbs, spices, or other foods, can be added during cooking, allowing heir flavors t mingle with the natural flavor of the vegetable or fruit.
Cooking Fresh Vegetables Steaming vegetables-one of the most healthful ways to cook vegetables. Fewer nutrients are lost because the vegetables are not cooked in water. Steaming takes a little longer than other methods. To steam vegetables, pace a steamer basket in a saucepan with a tight-fitting lid. Add water to a depth just below the bottom of the steamer. Cover the pan an bring the water t a boil. Add the vegetables to the steamer basket and cover Steam until tender
Simmering Vegetables Vegetables can be simmered in a covered pan in a small amount of water. Be sure to use a pan made of stainless steel, enamel, or glass. DO NOT use aluminum or copper. Allow about ½ cup (125 mL) of water for four servings of vegetables. Pour the water into a medium-size saucepan, cover, and bring to a boil. Add the vegetables, cover, an bring to a boil again. Then lower the heat until the water just simmers. Cook, covered, until vegetables are tender.
Microwaving Vegetables Microwaving cooks vegetables quickly using only a small amount of water. As a result, the vegetables lose few nutrients and keep their color, texture, and flavor. If parts of a vegetable are less tender than others-for- example, the stems of broccoli and asparagus-arrange the tender arts toward the center and the les tender ones toward the edge of the baking dish. When cooking whole vegetables that have a skin, such as potatoes or squash, pierce the skin with a fork, this will keep vegetable from bursting. Be sure to cover the container for moisture.
Baking Vegetables Vegetables of high moisture content can bake in the dry heat of an oven. (winter squash, potatoes, or sweet potatoes) Winter squash is usually cut in half, the seeds removed, and the halves paced on a baking sheet. Usually bakes at 350 degrees F for 30 minutes or longer or until tender. Potatoes baked in the skins are usually placed right on the oven rack. Baked between degrees F. Baking time will depend on temperature. Sweet potatoes can also be baked with skin on. Place in shallow pan in case juices begin to run out. They bake best at 400 degrees F.
Frying Vegetables Some vegetables, including onion, garlic, celery, and sweet pepper, are sometimes sauteed before they are used in recipes. Sauteing brings out the flavor of the vegetables. Stir-frying and deep-frying are other popular methods of cooking. Except for potatoes, vegetables are usually covered with a batter before frying. Frying in even a small amount of oil as fat and calories to vegetables. Especially when deep fried.
Cooking Fresh Fruits Poaching Fruits-the goal is to retain the shape of the fruit as it cooks. The cooking of fruit in enough simmering liquid to cover it. Fruits that can be poached includes plums, berries, apples, and pears. Add sugar at the beginning of the process. The sugar is not just for sweetness but to help the fruit keep its shape during cooking by strengthening the cell walls. For more flavor you can also add lemon or orange rind, a cinnamon stick, or vanilla. Simmer, uncovered, just until the fruit is tender.
Fruit Sauces What is the most common fruit sauce that you ate as a child and still often today? Fruit sauces are made by cooking the fruit in a liquid. The goal is to break down the texture. Therefore, sugar is NOT added. Pare the fruit and cut it into small pieces for faster cooking. Add water to a saucepan to a depth of about ¼ inch (0.6cm), and place the fruit in the pan. Bring to a boil, lower the heat to simmer, and cover. Cook, stirring occasionally, until the fruit as broken down. The time will vary, depending on the kind of fruit and the size of the pieces. Sweeten as desired with sugar, honey, or syrup.
Baking Fruits When baking fruits, make sure you avoid overcooking them. Best results are obtained with firm fruits-such as apples, pears, an bananas-that are whole or in large pieces. (Apples) Before cooking, core the apples, and cut a thin strip of skin from around the middle. This will allow apples to expand as they cook, so they won’t burst. You can fill the cavity with raisins and sweet spices such as cinnamon or nutmeg. Place the apples in a baking dish and pour hot water around them to a depth of ¼ in. (0.6cm). Bake at 350 degrees F until tender, about minutes.
Microwaving Fruits Fruits keep their fresh flavor and their shape when cooked in the microwave. However, they can overcook because they are so tender. Cover fruits when microwaving them, but leave a small opening for excess steam to escape. If you are cooking whole fruits, such as plums, pierce them with a fork in several places to keep them from bursting.