# Period 4 1. Attendance 2. Brainpop on Homestasis 3. Notes on Enzymes.

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Period 4 1. Attendance 2. Brainpop on Homestasis 3. Notes on Enzymes

Observation is  Using your senses  Taste  Hearing  Touch  Sight  Smell

What is your challenge?  To build the highest tower of spaghetti that will hold a marshmallow at the top without falling down.

The Details:  Teams of four people  18 minutes to plan and build  Supplies  20 strands of spaghetti  1 meter of masking tape  1 meter of string  1 marshmallow  We will measure each standing tower.  We will make a graph of the class results and discuss our findings.

modified by Deirdre Bonnell from www.middleschoolscience.com 2009www.middleschoolscience.com

Observations (I would write this in your notebook.)  Any information collected with the senses.  Quantitative – described with numbers  3 meters long  4 marbles  50 kilograms  35 degrees Celsius  Qualitative – described without numbers  raptors have keen eyesight  smells like fresh baked cookies  tastes bitter  The skill of describing scientific events

Inference  An idea or hypothesis based on observations of a small sampling of data. Let’s Practice Making an Inference! (Jot down on your paper)  Your Observations: I hear people screaming. I smell cotton candy, popcorn, and hamburgers. I see a lot of people.  Inference = ?

Now what do you think? Make 3 OBSERVATIONS Make an INFERENCE Frame 2

Look at these two sets of animal tracks. List 3 OBSERVATIONS Make an INFERENCE Frame 1

Now what do you think? Make 3 OBSERVATIONS Make an INFERENCE Frame 3

The amount of space an object occupies is called  volume

The amount of matter in an object is called  mass

Goggle It!! Take a tip from La Mimi… http://rickie-lee.com/kidz.html http://farm4.static.flickr.com/3546/3473946449_9e30fe4b94.jpg

Increase your pH I.Q. ASAP! A word from Soren… http://www.geocities.com/bioelectrochemistry/sorensen.htm

pH: “pondus hydrogenii” or the “potential to be hydrogen” H: hydrogen +: charge H+: hydrogen ion H 3 O + : hydronium ion

pH= -log([H 3 O + ]) pH is the negative log of the hydronium ion concentration in a liquid

http://www.ericharshbarger.org/images/office.19980611.jpg huh? w haa?

Q: What is a simpler way to think of pH?

Why not make a scale? http://www.costumeuniverse.com/prodspics/insane_guy.jpg

Why not make a scale? http://www.costumeuniverse.com/prodspics/insane_guy.jpg 1147

Why not make a scale? http://www.costumeuniverse.com/prodspics/insane_guy.jpg 1147 acid base

The number is based on the concentration of hydrogen ions HCl=.01 hydrogen ions= pH 2 NaOH=.0000000000001 hydrogen ions=pH13 Q: How is the pH number related to the ion number?

The less hydrogen ion activity in the solution, the more BASE it is: NaOH=.0000000000001 hydrogen ions= pH13 The more hydrogen ion activity in the solution, the more ACID it is: HCl=.01 hydrogen ions= pH 2

How do you measure pH? http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://sciweb.hfcc.net/Biology/jacobs/bio131/ph%26meas/phpaper1.gif&imgrefurl=http://sciweb.hfcc.net/Biology/jacobs/bio131/ph%26meas/pH%26measure ment.html&h=385&w=305&sz=75&tbnid=S5-AXV1yRXQJ:&tbnh=118&tbnw=94&start=18&prev=/images%3Fq%3DpH%2Bpaper%26hl%3Den%26lr%3D%26ie%3DUTF-8%26sa%3DG

Your hypothesis: What do you think the pH of each solution is? 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Lay down a strip of masking tape on your bench Evenly space the numbers from 1-14 Place the labeled index card where you think the pH of each solution will be Record your hypothesis in the chart in your handout Something you think is 4.7

Test the actual pH of your solutions: Dip the test strip in for 5 seconds, then remove it and compare it to the scale on the test strip box. Record your results!! Put used test strips on a paper towel, then throw them all in the garbage

Make your spice solution:  1) Write a good quantitative statement of how you are going to prepare your spice solutions.  Numbers, amounts, brand names, how long to stir, temperature water, type of water, amount of water.  2) When okay by teacher: prepare your spice solutions and soak one little disk in each  Carefully use the big pin to get the little disk out of the cup and into the solution 3) Sit back down for the next bunch of instructions

Putting your bacteria on the new petri dish.  Get new plate. One per person. Put your name on the bottom in small letters near the edge.  Write the numbers 2,6, and 10 on the back of the dish where they would be if it was a clock.  Dip a q-tip in the sterile water and slide along your own bacteria culture. Slide back and forth like the diagram shows. Do not dig in the agar.  Spread your germs all over the new plate. Do not dig in the agar.  Close the lid and sit down for further instructions

Putting the disks in the petri dish and labeling your answer paper.  Carefully use the pin to transfer the disk soaked in spice solution to next to a number on your petri dish.  Make a key on your answer paper of which number has which spice.  Rinse the pin off between uses.  Continue until all disks are on your petri dish.  Close the cover, turn upside down, and then sit in your desks!

The scientific method 1. Problem – question you are trying to figure out. 2. Hypothesis – your educated guess as the result. State it as If…..then…. 3. Perform the experiment. 1. Use quantitative statements to design the experiment. 2. control group – a group that you are studying that is not being tested. You are supposed to compare the results with the control group.

Scientific Method continued Performing the Experiment continued 4. Variable – the characteristic of the experiment that can change Independent variable – the variable that is being manipulated (changed around – tested) in the experiment Dependent variable – the variable that is the result that is measured after the fact Example: I change the amount of sunlight that plants receive to see if it changes how tall the plants will grow.

Your hypothesis: What do you think the pH of each solution is? 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Lay down a strip of masking tape on your bench Evenly space the numbers from 1-14 Know what numbers are acidic, neutral or a basic Place the labeled index card where you think the pH of each solution will be Record your hypothesis in the chart in your handout Something you think is 4.7

Make your spice solution:  1) Write a good quantitative statement of how you are going to prepare your spice solutions.  Numbers, amounts, brand names, how long to stir, temperature water, type of water, amount of water.  2) When okay by teacher: prepare your spice solutions and soak one little disk in each  Carefully use the big pin to get the little disk out of the cup and into the solution 3) Sit back down for the next bunch of instructions

Review for 10/5 quiz  How do images appear under the microscope?  Inverted (upside down)  Larger

 If you move a slide towards you, which way does it appear to move while looking through the microscope?  Away from you

If you move a slide to the right, which way does it appear to move while you look through the microscope?  To the left – opposite the way you move it

Know the parts and functions of a microscope.  Ocular – look through and magnifies images  Objectives – magnifies images  Stage – holds slide  Diaphram – round spinner under stage – controls the amount of light  Course adjustment knob – focus only for low power  Fine adjustment knob – focuses on images for all powers

What happened to the image of the e when you went from medium to high power?  It gets larger  It stays inverted – doesn’t flip in between powers.

What is the total magnification if the ocular is 10x and the objective is 25x?  250x

What is a bacterial lawn?  Remember?

Do you know how to label a graphs axis?

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