Presentation on theme: "Focus Area 5A3 Issues in Australian Environments"— Presentation transcript:
1Focus Area 5A3 Issues in Australian Environments Coastal ManagementFocus Area 5A3 Issues in Australian Environments
2Syllabus: Coastal Management Students learn about:the geographical processes relevant to coastal managementthe perceptions of different groups about coastal managementindividual, group and government responses to coastal managementdecision-making processes involved in the management of coastal managementmanagement of coastal management and the implications for sustainability, social justice and equity
3What is Coastal Management? It is aimed at developing and implementing strategies to preserve and protect our coastal environment.Human activity increasingly threatens our coastal environs through e.g. foreshore development of high rise hotels, residential buildings, population growth, planting of non native species of plants etc.
4Did you know? ￼There are 721 beaches along the New South Wales coast. Their average length is 1.5 kms and they are generally bordered by rocky headlands.The longest beach in NSW is Ten Mile Beach, Shark Bay, near Evans Head (far north coast) with a length of 17.5 kilometres.Photo:
5Geographical Processes Relevant to Coastal Management
6What is a Geographical Process? A geographical process changes the geography of a region. For example, the destruction of the rainforest in the Amazon can change an area from rainforest to cleared cropland or grazing areas.A geographical process may also be a natural process that transforms one landform into another. An undersea volcano may eventually become an island that towers over the sea. A hotspot volcanic chain, such as the Hawaiian islands are an example.sourced 17/02/13
7Hydraulic ActionThis is when air in cracks on the cliff face becomes compressed by the power of the waves striking the cliff face.As this happens the air inside the crack is compressed, putting a lot of pressure on the surrounding rock.The air then expands explosively, forcing out pieces of rock.Over time, the cliff face crack breaks causing a larger crack or cave to form. The rock from the cliff face which was removed falls to the bottom of the sea bed and is also used for another wave action- Corrasion (Abrasion).
8Corrasion (Abrasion)This is when the waves break on the cliff face pounding the cliff face slowly eroding it.Along with the cliff face being eroded by the power of the sea the sea also uses the scree (an accumulation of loose stones or rocky debris lying on a slope or at the base of a hill or cliff) from other wave actions.As the sea pounds the cliff faces it also uses the scree to batter and break off pieces of rock from higher up the cliff face.
9CorrosionThe action of salt on minerals like iron that are contained in rock and making it more susceptible to erosion.The rocking action of the sea also makes it easier for the sea to erode limestone cliff faces as the rocking action of the sea acts as the stirring motion in a chemistry experiment which helps to speed up a corrosive experiment.Geo Focus 2 p151
10Geographical Processes Affecting Coastal Management Atmospheric processes – caused by such elements as temperature change, storms and the force of the wind.Biotic processes – plant and animal life and the way they interact.Geomorphic processes – uplifting forces within the Earth’s crust, which create sea cliffs or the forces of erosion and deposition.Hydrologic processes – action of the waves, the tides and ocean currents.
11The Formation of WavesThe sea is a powerful force whose constant action can change the shape of coastlines especially the shoreline where the land borders the sea.Natural wind energy forms wavesThe size of waves depends on two things:THE STRENGTH OF THE WIND.THE FETCHThe FETCH is the distance a wave travels.The greater the fetch, the larger the wave.THE STRONGER THE WIND the larger the wave.A wave slows as it approaches a beach.This is the result of friction between the waterand the beach. This causes a wave to break.What determines the size of waves on the shoreline?
12Waves Breaking on the Shoreline When waves enter shallow water the energy in the wave starts to interact with the sea floor.The wave peak eventually travels faster than the wave base causing the wave to break. A broken wave forms the surf and swash zone.GF 2 p155
13Swash and BackwashThe active part of the coast in terms of erosion and deposition of sand by wave action. The swash zone is at the shore once the waves have brokenBackwash is the a backward flow or movement of water produced especially by the propelling force of the wave i.e. the combination of the force of the swash and gravity makes the water move backwards
14Longshore DriftThe action of swash and backwash mean the grains of sand can move in a zigzag motion along a beach.
152 Main Types Of Waves Constructive (good) Destructive (bad)
16Constructive Waves These waves build beaches. Each wave is low. When a wave breaks it carries material up the beach in its swash.The beach material will then be deposited as the backwash soaks into the sand or slowly drains away.These waves are most common in summer.
17Destructive Waves These waves destroy beaches. The waves are usually very high and very frequent.The back wash has less time to soak into the sand.The continual hitting of waves on the beach means there is more running water to transport the material out to sea.These waves are most common in winter.
19DepositionIs when eroded material including sand and sediment is dropped by constructive waves. It happens because wave have less energy. Deposition creates a range of landforms.
20Activity – Newspaper Article The local council has decided to buy back residential property located on a headland and a neighbouring fore dune that is subject to severe erosion.Local residents who own the property say the council is depriving them of their spectacular views, relaxed lifestyle and valuable property.Write a newspaper article that evaluates the council’s decision to buy back the properties.The article should present facts and consider a range of opinions about the issue.The article needs to include an opinion on the property buy-back proposal.
22Plants - OnshoreOn the shore plants are typically low and tough as they have to survive the onshore winds and salt spray.Sometimes plants are introduced to stabilise dunes, which can move or be washed away. Plants like the bitou bush (shown below), a native of South Africa, has become a pest and has overrun large areas along the east coast of Australia. Programs to eradicate, get rid of, bitou bush have begun.
23Plants -Underwater In the water there are many varieties of sea grasses andseaweed.There are also giant kelps, large brown algae that grows just below the low tide mark in dense beds. Kelps (illustrated above) absorb wave action and help defend the shoreline against storms.
24Groups Perceptions affected by Coastal Management
25Stakeholders Residents Developers Environmentalists Governments Who wish to enjoy the delights of living by the coast – views, water sports, more temperate weather etc.DevelopersWho see the opportunities for making big profits because of high demand for coastal access and viewsEnvironmentalistsWho are concerned about over development of coastal areas and believe that it is often ugly and unnecessary as it spoils the appearance of the area and causes damage to native flora, fauna and environsGovernmentsLocal - Waringah Shire Council, Byron Shire Council etc.State - NSW, Qld, Victoria etc.Federal - the Prime Minsters office, Department of Defence, Office of the Environment etc.
26Responsibility for the Australian coastline The Local, State and Territory Governments are responsible for coastline within 3 nautical miles (NM) of the shore.The Federal government is responsible for management of waters for 200 nm beyond this.This division of powers can complicate matters because the environmental impacts of activities undertaken in coastal zones do not follow this jurisdictional division.
27Individual, Group And Government Responses To Coastal Management
28Sustainability Is the most significant of coastal issues Being able to meet the needs of the present without compromising the needs of future generations
29Human Impacts On Coasts – Stakeholder Perceptions 1.Housing and development2.Ports and marinas3.Stormwater run-off and pollution4.Sand mining5.Recreation and tourismStakeholders or groups with an interest in coasts include:Housing residentsEnvironmentalistsGovernmentsCommunity membersBoat ownersMinersTourists
30Housing and development This involves:Construction of houses around lagoons and swamps.The use of wetlands for landfills.The development of sand dunes for 'prime' real estate.Recreational purposes have all had negative effects on Australia's coastal areas.The removal of vegetation has:Seen a significant reduction in biodiversityDisrupted the natural processes which form intricate coastal ecosystems.
31Housing , Development & Beaches Beaches are formed by an ongoing cycle of erosion and deposition of sand. Storms erode beaches of their sand, which is then re-deposited by large waves.When humans use beaches for housing and recreation:The natural cycle is interrupted and sand banks become depleted.Over time beautiful beaches aredestroyed.Cliff-top housing, althoughaesthetically pleasing forhome-owners, is also dangerousbecause of its interference withthese natural processes.
32Storm water run-off and pollution Vast areas of land covered in concrete and bitumen, particularly in cities, generate enormous amounts of contaminated storm water and rainwater run-off.This pollutes our waterways and damages fragile coastal ecosystems.In addition petroleum-related pollutants are emitted from motorboats, ferries and large ships (20-30 per cent per cent of all marine pollution).
33Sand Mining In Queensland, northern New South Wales, parts of Western Australiaand South Australia, certainminerals found in beach sand aremined for the production of paintsand industrial tools.Sand minerals include zircon, ilmenite and rutile. In some areas of WA, calcareous sand beneath seabeds is also mined for the production of limestone and cement.Australia has the world's largest Economic Demonstrated Resource (EDR) of these mineral sands and they are an important source of export earnings.Extraction of sand minerals requires quarrying of beaches, which disrupts the natural cycles that form sand banks and destroys the habitats of many plants and animals
34Recreation & TourismCoastlines have experienced the construction of high-rise resorts, shopping esplanades, playgrounds, golf courses and beach car parks.Development has enhance the lifestyles of residents and the holiday experiences of domestic and overseas tourists but cause significant damage to Australia's precious coastal areas.In less-frequented areas, the use of sand dunes for recreational purposes (for example four-wheel driving) damages sand dune formation and scares away wildlife.
35Ports & MarinasTo enhance the navigational potential of coastline, natural channels are widened or deepened by removing earth from the bottom of waterways (a process known as dredging).This destroys the habitats of(bottom-dwelling) organisms thatlive in the sediment that is removed.Stone breakwaters stretching far out to sea are constructed around ports and marinas to reduce wave impacts and tidal fluctuations.This has the negative consequence of hindering natural erosion and mineral deposition processes.
37What Are They?Sustainability - achieving environmentally sustainable outcomes.Social justice - ensuring the outcome achieved is socially just (or fair) for all stakeholders.Equity - ensuring decision-making processes through which the outcome is achieved are equitable for all parties involved.
38Stakeholder Co-Operation Effective management strategies require consideration of the often competing interests, attitudes and values of all stakeholders.In Australia, it has become increasingly apparent that the community, private and government (including local, State/Territory and federal) sectors are not integrated in their efforts to better utilise, manage and protect the environment.Adopting an integrated approach helps to ensure that environmental management outcomes are sustainable, socially just and equitable.The entire process needs to be managed in terms of how it reflects upon Australia's level of sustainability, social justice and equity
39The Role of Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs) Predict the impacts a proposed action (for example, the development of a tourist resort) is likely to have on the environment to which it is being applied (Sustainability aspect)Assesses the significance of proposed changes to the environment and provide a platform for discussion between different stakeholders. (Social Justice aspect)
40Environmental Planning & Decision Making Planning is the process of organising our use of the environment. It helps to ensure:Environmental quality is retained while development needs are met.Public and private use of the environment is balanced.Rapid population growth of cities in most countries of the world since WW2 intensified the need for environmental planning. Globalisation lead to economies being modeled on the capitalist system of economic growth which affected the way humans influence the physical and built environments.
41Integrated Environmental Management At A Government Level In July 2000 the Environmental Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (Cth) was passed.The EPBC Act :Represented a move towards greater coordination of Federal, State and Territory efforts to address issues of environmental concern in Australia.Outlines the federal government would take the key leadership role and the authority of the States and Territories has still been upheld.Requires an EIA to be completed before any action that may have a significant impact on the physical or built environment can be approved by the federal government.
43Coastal Management Strategies Coastal management involves developing strategies designed to protect and preserve the coastal environment.Construction ofprotective barriersand wallsBeach nourishmentCoastal dunepreservation
44ConservationConservation refers to using the Earth’s resources in a sustainable manner.The Australian Conservation Foundation (ACF) is a non- government organisation involved in conservation issues. The ACF aims to protect, restore and sustain Australian environments by working in collaboration with stakeholders.
45PreservationPreservation is concerned with keeping things in their present state or form.Preservation meansReducing human impacts on the physical environment by not touching things that remain in their natural state.Protecting unspoilt ecosystems through the creation of national parks, nature reserves and marine sanctuaries.
46Management Strategies Activity Explain why the following terms are considered good strategies for managing coastal erosion and other issues. Refer to SIMB reference articles as a starting point for your explanationSea walls / Boardwalks / GroynesJetties / Harbours / MarinasBreakwaters / dredging river mouths or coastal estuariesBeach replenishmentSand dune preservation (including re-vegetation)Water quality monitoringComplete the lingo list activity on simb
48Sea walls Used to stop erosion of the coastline and protect property. They often replace the fore dune, which is an essential part of the beach erosion.The scenic appeal of the beach may be reduced by their construction.
49Breakwaters Constructed at the entrances to rivers. They extend into the ocean in order to stabilise river entrances and provide safe access for boating by keeping the river entrance clear of sand build-up.They can act to dramatically alter patterns of erosion, transportation and deposition of sand along the coastline.
50GroynesConstructed along beaches (almost at right angles to the shore) to catch sand and make beaches wider.They protrude into the ocean and are designed primarily to slow down the rate of longshore drift.Sand tends to accumulate on one side only, creating a different beach from its natural shape.Traditionally made out of wood or rocks and concrete but often now textile bags filled with sand are being used.
52Beach Nourishment Beach nourishment involves the movement of sand by machines.Large quantities of sand are moved from a point where it accumulates to a point where it has been eroded.It is an expensive beach management technique and needs to be ongoing.Dredging river mouths along the coast is a common source of sand for beach nourishment e.g. Narrabeen Lagoon & Collaroy Beach
53Coastal Dune Preservation Limiting new developments in coastal dune areas to allow dunes to play their natural role as a buffer between the beach and the land and avoids councils having to build elaborate sea walls to protect property.Constructing fences to control access of pedestrians and vehicles across sand dune areas. This helps stop erosion as trampling vegetation removes the protective covering.Revegetation to help stabilise the dunes when the natural vegetation has been removed.
54Coastal Management Strategies - The Advantages & Disadvantages Brief description of management strategyAdvantagesDisadvantagesConstruction of protective barriersProtects propertyMaintains river openingsCollects sand lost to long-shore driftIncreases erosionUnsightlyAlters patterns of transportation of sand along beachUnnatural shape given to beachBeach nourishmentReplenishes lost sand to beachesExpensive and ongoing maintenanceCoastal dune preservationAllows dunes to play their natural roleStops erosionStops destabilisationAvoids more expensive structures such as sea wallsRestricts movement on beachLimits development