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POISONOUS PLANTS Use of plant poisons in the capital punishment –

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2 POISONOUS PLANTS Use of plant poisons in the capital punishment –
Treat unknown plants with respect, and teach your children to do the same. Many plants are poisonous to varying degrees. Many plant poisons are either alkaloids or steroids, a potential source of drugs or commercial poisons for use as insecticides, herbicides and fungicides. Use of plant poisons in the capital punishment – well known from the story: death of Greek Philosopher Socrates- sentenced to drink the juice of poison hemlock Conium maculatum.

3 Plants cannot escape their predators-need protection from herbivores.
Some have physical defenses:- thorns, prickles, hairs, bristles. BUT most common protection is chemicals. Natural selection has produced many chemical compounds to keep away herbivores-during thousands of years.

4 Tannins- emerged relatively early in the evolutionary history of plants.
More complex molecules-Polyacetylenes are found in younger groups of plants like  Asterales. Consumption of such plants may produce negative effects-mild discomfort to death.

5 Same poisonous compounds may be of medicinal value. 
Many unanswered questions about this chemical defence system..

6 Questions include: Which plants have which type of defenses? (2)Which herbivores are the plants defended against? (3)What are the chemical structures of the compounds that provide defense? (4)What are the potential medical uses of these compounds?

7 An active area of research with important implications in the field of medicinal chemistry.
Human fatalities caused by poisonous plants-especially from accidental ingestion.

8 Poisonous Food Plants Many food plants toxic unless processed, or
are toxic at certain stages of their life. Apple (Malus domestica)-Seeds mildly poisonous, contain small amount of amygdalin, a  cyanogenic glycoside. Quantity contained usually not enough to be dangerous to humans, but if enough seeds ingested can prove fatal.

9 Cassava (Manihot esculenta)
Roots +Leaves contain 2 cyanogenic glucosides; linamarin & lotaustralin- decomposed by linamarase-a naturally occurring enzyme in cassava, liberating  HCN. Sweet or Bitter Varieties signify absence or presence of toxic levels of cyanogenic glucosides. ‘Sweet' cv can produce 20 mg of CN/kg of fresh roots-bitter ones produce more 1 g/kg.

10  Toxin very high in drought conditions.
40 mg of pure cassava cyanogenic glucoside sufficient to kill a cow. Causes severe calcific “Pancreatitis” in humans-chronic (inflammation of pancreas). Processing (soaking, cooking, fermentation) of roots necessary to remove the toxins & avoid getting sick.

11 "Low-level CN exposure associated with the development of goiter & tropical ataxic neuropathy-a nerve damaging disorder; renders a person unsteady & uncoordinated. Severe CN poisoning-associated with outbreaks of a debilitating, irreversible paralytic disorder called KONZO -in some cases death.

12 Incidence of KONZO & Tropical Ataxic Neuropathy can be as high as 3 % in some areas.
For smaller-rooted sweet varieties-cooking sufficient to eliminate all toxicity. CN is carried away in the processing water. Larger-rooted, bitter var. used for production of flour or starch must be processed to remove cyanogenic glucosides.

13 Industrial production of cassava flour, even at the cottage level, may generate enough CN & cyanogenic glycosides in the effluents to have a severe environmental impact. Cherry (Prunus cerasus), + other Prunus species -peach (P. persica), plum (P. domestica), almond (P. dulcis), & apricot (P. armeniaca)-Leaves + seeds contain Cyanogenic Glycosides.

14 Indian pea (Lathyrus sativus)
Legume from Asia & East Africa – insurance crop for use during famines. Produces a high-protein seed. Seeds contain variable amounts of  ODAP (β-N-Oxalyl-L-α,β- diaminopropionic acid) a neurotoxic amino acid.

15  ODAP causes  paralysis if eaten over a
long period. Considered as the cause of disease  Neurolathyrism, a  neurodegenerative  disease –causes paralysis of the lower body & emaciation(weight loss) of gluteal muscle.

16 after famines in Europe (France, Spain,
Disease seen to occur after famines in Europe (France, Spain, Germany), North Africa &  South Asia. Still prevalent in Eritrea, Ethiopia & parts of Afghanistan if Lathyrus seed exclusive or main source of nutrients for long.

17 Nutmeg (Myristica fragrans)
-Contains Myristicin - a naturally occurring insecticide & acaricide with possible neurotoxic effects on neuroblastoma cells. Psychoactive properties at doses much higher than used in cooking. Raw produces anticholinergic-like symptoms, attributed to myristicin & elemicin (a phenylpropene).

18 Myristicin intoxication causes
condition between waking - dreaming; euphoria is reported, nausea often experienced. Users report bloodshot eyes – memory disturbances.

19 Induces hallucinogenic effects like
visual distortions. Intoxication peak reaching- may take 7 hours, effects can be felt for 24 hours, with lingering effects lasting up to 72 hours.

20 Kidney bean or common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris)
Toxic compound  phytohaemagglutinin (a lectin) -in many varieties of common bean especially red kidney beans. Lectin - number of effects on cell metabolism. Induces  mitosis, affects cell membrane transport & permeability to proteins. Primary symptoms of poisoning-nausea, vomiting, diarrhea

21 Onset from 1 - 3 hours after
consumption of improperly prepared beans, symptoms typically resolve within a few hours. ]Consumption of as few as 4 or 5 raw kidney beans sufficient to trigger symptoms.

22 Phytohaemagglutinin can be
deactivated by cooking beans at 100 °C for 10 minutes- (degrades toxin). For dry beans initial soak of at least 5 hours in water required; the soaking water is discarded.

23 Lower cooking temperatures may
have the paradoxical effect of potentiating the toxic effect of haemagglutinin. Beans cooked at 80 °C are reported to be up 5 times as toxic as raw beans.

24 Lima bean or butter bean (Phaseolus lunatus)
Outbreaks of poisoning associated with the use of slow cookers, the low cooking temperatures-unable to degrade the toxin. Lima bean or butter bean  (Phaseolus lunatus) Raw beans contain dangerous amounts of  linamarin, a  cyanogenic  glucoside.

25 Lupin - Some varieties have edible seeds
Sweet Lupins – less toxic alkaloids lupinine & sparteine; Bitter have more. Onions and Garlic.  Alliums- contain thiosulphate, in high doses toxic to dogs, cats + other livestock.

26 Potato (Solanum tuberosum)
Contain toxic compounds called Glyco-alkaloids - most prevalent solanine & chaconine. Solanine found also in Atropa belladonna ("deadly nightshade") &  Hyoscyamus niger ("henbane").

27 Concentration of glycoalkaloid in wild potatoes suffices to produce toxic effects in humans.
Toxin affects - nervous system, causing headaches, diarrhea, intense digestive disturbances, cramps, weakness & confusion, in severe cases coma / death.

28 Poisoning from cultivated potatoes very rare -toxic compounds in general concentrated in the green portions & fruits, cultivated potato varieties contain lower toxin levels. Cooking at high temperatures (over 170 °C) partly destroys the toxin. Exposure to light, physical damage & age increase glycoalkaloid content within the tuber,  highest concentrations occurring just underneath the skin.

29 Tubers exposed to light turn green from
chlorophyll synthesis-a visual clue to areas of the tuber that may have become more toxic. Not a definite guide, as greening & glycoalkaloid accumulation can occur independently of each other. Some potato cv contain greater glycoalkaloid concentrations than others; breeders developing new varieties test for this, and sometimes have to discard an otherwise promising cv. Breeders keep solanine levels below 200 mg/kg.

30 If commercial varieties turn green-they can approach concentrations of solanine of 1000 mg/kg.
Americans consume 12.5 mg/day of solanine from potatoes (toxic dose actually several times this, depending on body weight). No reported cases of potato-source solanine poisoning, and most cases involved eating green potatoes or drinking potato-leaf tea.

31 Rhubarb (Rheum rhaponticum)
Petioles edible-leaves contain notable quantities of  oxalic acid- a Nephrotoxic & corrosive  acid- present in many plants. Symptoms of poisoning-kidney disorders, convulsions & coma, Rarely fatal. LD50 (median lethal dose) for pure oxalic acid is about 25  grams  for a 65 kg human.

32 Oxalic acid content in leaves varies.
Typical value ± 0.5%- if 5 kg of extremely sour leaves consumed - reach an LD50 of oxalic acid. Cooking leaves with soda can make them more poisonous by producing soluble oxalates. Leaves are believed to also contain an unidentified toxin- might be an anthraquinone glycoside (also called  senna glycosides).

33 In petioles-amount of oxalic acid much lower;about 2-2
In petioles-amount of oxalic acid much lower;about 2-2.5% of the total acidity which is dominated by malic acid. Even raw stalks may not be hazardous. Tart taste of raw stalks is so strong as to be unpalatable to many.

34 Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum).
Leaves + stems contain solanine -toxic if ingested, causing digestive upset & nervous excitement. Use of tomato leaves as a tea (tisane) has been responsible for at least 1 death.

35 Green unripe fruits also contain small amounts of the poisonous alkaloid tomatine-levels generally too small to be dangerous. Ripe tomatoes do not contain any detectable tomatine. Plants can be toxic to dogs if they eat large amounts or chew plant material.

Abrus precatorius (known commonly as jequirity, crab's eye, rosary pea, 'John Crow' bead, precatory bean, Indian licorice, akar saga, giddee giddee, jumbie bead, ruti, and weather plant). Attractive seeds (usually about the size of a ladybug, glossy red with one black dot) contain abrin-related to ricin, & very potent.

37 Poisoning Symptoms: nausea, vomiting, convulsions, liver failure, & death, usually after several days. Seeds used as beads in jewelry-dangerous; inhaled dust is toxic and pinpricks can be fatal. Seeds attractive to children BUT ingesting a single seed can kill an adult human.

38 Aconitum (Several species, commonly called aconite, wolfsbane
 and monkshood) All parts poisonous-an alkaloid called aconitine, which disables nerves, lowers blood pressure, and can stop the heart. Even casual skin contact should be avoided; symptoms include numbness, tingling, & cardiac irregularity.

39 Used as poison for bullets (by Germany in WWII), as bait + arrow poison (ancient Greece), to poison water supplies. If ingested-usually causes burning, tingling, numbness in the mouth, followed by vomiting and nervous excitement. A quick-acting poison-used in the past for killing wolves.

40 Actaea pachypoda (also known as doll's eyes or white baneberry).
All parts poisonous-especially the berries, the consumption has sedative effect on cardiac muscle tissue and can cause cardiac arrest. Adenium obesum (also known as sabi star, kudu or desert-rose) Exudes a highly toxic sap -used by the Meridian High & Hadza in Tanzania to coat arrow-tips for hunting. Aesculus hippocastanum (commonly known as horse-chestnut) All plant parts poisonous-causing nausea, muscle twitches, and sometimes paralysis. African sumac – see Rhus lancia.

41 Agave. Juice of a number of species causes acute contact dermatitis, with blistering lasting several weeks & recurring itching for several years thereafter. Ageratina altissima (commonly known as white snakeroot). All parts poisonous, causing nausea - vomiting. Often fatal. Milk from cattle that have eaten white snakeroot can sicken, or kill, humans (milk sickness).

42 Agrostemma githago (common name corn cockle)
Contains saponins githagin & agrostemmic acid. All plant parts poisonous - may produce chronic or acute, potentially fatal poisoning. Used in folk medicine to treat a range of ills, from parasites to cancer . No known recent clinical studies of corn cockle which provide a basis for dosage recommendations, however doses higher than 3 g [of seeds] are considered toxic.

43 Aquilegia (also known as columbine).
Several species. Seeds & roots contain cardiogenic toxins -cause both severe gastroenteritis & heart palpitations if consumed. Flowers of various species consumed in moderation by Native Americans as a condiment with other fresh greens-very sweet, and safe if consumed in small quantities.

44 Native Americans also used very small amounts of the root as an effective treatment for ulcers.
Medical use of this plant difficult due to its high toxicity; columbine poisonings are easily fatal.

45 Areca catechu (commonly known as betel nut palm and pinyang).
Contains an alkaloid related to nicotine -addictive. Produces a mild high, some stimulation, and lots of red saliva, which cannot be swallowed as it causes nausea. Withdrawal causes headache & sweats. Use correlated with mouth cancer, to a lesser extent asthma and heart disease.

46 Arum maculatum (commonly known as cuckoo-pint, lords and ladies, jack in the pulpit, wake robin, wild arum, devils and angels, cows and bulls, Adam and Eve, bobbins and starch-root). All parts of the plant can produce allergic reactions. Bright red berries contain oxalates -can cause skin, mouth + throat irritation, resulting in swelling, burning pain, breathing difficulties & stomach upset. Most common causes of plant poisoning.

47 Asparagus The berries are poisonous.
Atropa belladonna (commonly known as deadly nightshade, belladonna, devil's cherry and dwale, an Anglo-Saxon term meaning stupifying drink). One of the most toxic plant - in the Western hemisphere. All parts contain tropane alkaloids.  Active agents - atropine, hyoscine (scopolamine), & hyoscyamine,with  anticholinergic properties. 

48 Symptoms of poisoning :- 
dilated pupils, sensitivity to light, blurred vision,  tachycardia, loss of balance, staggering, headache,  rash, flushing, dry mouth and throat, slurred speech,  urinary retention,  constipation, confusion, hallucinations, delirium, and convulsions.

49 Root generally most toxic part, but can vary from one specimen to another.
Ingestion of a single leaf of the plant can be fatal to an adult. Casual contact with the leaves can cause skin pustules. Berries pose greatest danger to children-look attractive and have a somewhat sweet taste.

50 Consumption of 2 -5 berries by children and 10-20 by adults can be lethal.
2009-case of A. belladonna mistaken for blueberries, with 6 berries ingested by an adult woman, was documented to result in severe anticholinergic syndrome. 

51 Plant's deadly symptoms caused by atropine's disruption of the parasympathetic nervous system.
Regulates involuntary activities such as sweating, breathing, and heart rate. Antidote for atropine poisoning is physostigmine or pilocarpine.

52  A. belladonna  also toxic to many domestic animals, causing narcosis and paralysis. 
Cattle and rabbits eat the plant seemingly without suffering harmful effects.  Anticholinergic properties will cause disruption of cognitive capacities like memory & learning in humans. Colchicum autumnale-Autumn crocus. Rhododendron-Azaleas  Solanum dulcamara-Bittersweet nightshade. Helleborus niger-Black hellebore . Robinia pseudoacacia & Robinia-Black locust

53 Black nightshade – Solanum nigrum.
Bleeding heart –  Dicentra cucullaria. Blind-your-eye mangrove –  Excoecaria agallocha. Blister Bush –  Peucedanum galbanum. Bloodroot –  Sanguinaria canadensis. Blue-green algae –  Cyanobacteria. Bobbins –  Arum maculatum. Bracken – Pteridium aquilinum. Broom –  Cytisus scoparius.

54 Physostigma venenosum- Calabar Bean.
Brugmansia (commonly known as angel's trumpet). All parts of the plant contain the tropane alkaloids  scopolamine  &  atropine. Often fatal. Physostigma venenosum- Calabar Bean.

55 Caladium (commonly known as angel wings, elephant ear and heart of Jesus).
All parts of the plant poisonous. Symptoms generally irritation, pain, and swelling of tissues. If the mouth or tongue swell, breathing may be fatally blocked.

56 Seeds contain cerberin- a potent toxin related to digoxin.
Castor oil plant – Ricinus communis. Cerbera odollam (commonly known as the suicide tree). Seeds contain cerberin- a potent toxin related to digoxin. Blocks the Ca ion channels in heart muscle, causing disruption of the heart beat.

57 Typically fatal, even a single seed ingesting.
Cerberin - difficult to detect in autopsies, taste masked with strong spices, such as curry. Often used in homicide, suicide- India. 2004- documented more than 500 cases of fatal Cerbera poisoning between in Kerala.

58 No plant in the world is responsible for as many deaths by suicide as the  odollam  tree.' 
Related species is Cerbera tanghin the seeds known as tanghin poison nut-used as an 'ordeal poison‘.

59 Chelidonium majus (also known as greater celandine).
Whole plant toxic in moderate doses-contains range of isoquinoline alkaloids, but claimed therapeutic uses at the correct dosage. Main alkaloid present in the herb & root is coptisine, with berberine, chelidonine, sanguinarine and chelerythrine also present. 

60 Sanguinarine-particularly toxic with an LD50 of only 18 mg per kg body weight. 
Effect of the fresh herb is analgesic, cholagogic, antimicrobial, oncostatic, with action as a central nervous system  sedative.

61 In animal tests, Chelidonium majus  shown to be cytostatic.
Latex causes contact dermatitis and eye irritation. Stains on skin of the fingers are sometimes reported to cause eye irritation after rubbing the eyes or handling contact lenses. Latex also contains proteolytic enzymes + the phytocystatin  chelidostatin, a  cysteine protease inhibitor.

62 Christmas rose – Helleborus niger
Cicuta (several species) (commonly known as water hemlock, cowbane, wild carrot, snakeweed, poison parsnip, false parsley, children's bane and death-of-man). Root-when freshly pulled out of the ground, extremely poisonous, contains the toxin cicutoxin, a central nervous system stimulant, resulting in seizures.

63 When dried, the poisonous effect is reduced.
Most common species -C. maculata. C. douglasii, (USA) often found in pastures and swamps, has especially thick stems and very large and sturdy flowers which are sometimes harvested for flower displays. Inadvisable as the sap is also toxic.

64 Cocklebur – Xanthium straumarium
Colchicum autumnale (commonly known as autumn crocus and meadow saffron). Bulbs contain colchicine. Colchicine poisoning -compared to arsenic poisoning; symptoms start 2 to 5 hours after the toxic dose has been ingested - include burning in the mouth and throat, fever, vomiting, diarrhea,  abdominal pain and kidney failure. Symptoms may set in as many as 24 hours after the exposure. Onset of multiple-system organ failure may occur within hours.

65 Includes hypovolemic shock due to extreme vascular damage and fluid loss through the GI tract, which may result in death. Sufferers may experience kidney damage resulting in low urine output and bloody urine; low white blood cell counts (persisting for several days);anemia; muscular weakness; and respiratory failure. Recovery may begin within 6 to 8 days.

66 No specific antidote for colchicine-various treatments do exist.
Despite dosing issues concerning its toxicity, colchicine prescribed in the treatment of gout, familial Mediterranean fever, pericarditis  & Behçet's disease. Investigated for its use as an anti-cancer drug.

67 Conium maculatum (commonly known as hemlock, poison hemlock, spotted parsley, spotted cowbane, bad-man's oatmeal, poison snakeweed and beaver poison). All plant parts contain  alkaloid coniine - causes stomach pains, vomiting, progressive paralysis of the central nervous system. Can be fatal-the poison that killed Socrates. Not to be confused with hemlock trees (Tsuga spp), which, while not edible, are not nearly as toxic as the herbaceous plant Conium.

68 Conium native to Europe & the Medit
Conium  native to Europe & the Medit.  as  Conium maculatum  and to southern  Africa as  C. chaerophylloides.   Ascending paralysis it produces, ending in death by failure of respiration. Old remedy.

69 Conium chaerophylloides.
Conium maculatum 

70 C. maculatum-an excellent remedy for difficult gait, trembling, sudden loss of strength while walking, painful stiffness of legs, etc. Such a condition is often found in old age, a time of weakness, languor, local congestions, and sluggishness. Special environment that Conium chooses to manifest its action.

71 Corresponds to the hypochondriasis, urinary troubles, weakened memory.
Growth of tumors invite it also. Great debility in the morning in bed.  Weakness of body and mind trembling, and palpitation.

72 Cancerous diathesis. Arteriosclerosis. Caries of sternum. Enlarged glands. Acts on the glandular system, engorging and indurating it, altering its structure like scrofulous and cancerous conditions. Tonic after grippe. Insomnia of multiple neuritis.

73 Consolida (commonly known as larkspur). 
Young plants & seeds poisonous, causing nausea, muscle twitches, paralysis. Often fatal. Convallaria majalis (commonly known as lily of the valley). Contains 38 different  cardiac glycosides.

74 Coriaria myrtifolia (commonly known as redoul).
Mediterranean plant contains toxin coriamyrtin, ingestion of which produces digestive, neurological & respiratory problems. Fruits poisonous, superficially resemble blackberries, may mistakenly be eaten. Can be fatal in children.

75 Corn cockle – Agrostemma githago. Corn lily – Veratrum.
Cowbane – Cicuta. Cows and bulls Cuckoo-pint– Arum maculatum. Crab's eye – Abrus precatorius.

76 Cyanobacteria -containing many different species, including Anacystis cynea & Anabaena circinalis, producing several different toxins – collectively  cyanotoxins. Include neurotoxins, hepatotoxins, endotoxins & cytotoxins. Potentially hazardous particularly to marine animals, but also to humans.

77 Cytisus scoparius (commonly known as broom or common broom).
Contains toxic alkaloids - depresses heart & nervous system.  Alkaloid sparteine is a class 1a anti-arrhythmic agent; a sodium channel blocker. Not FDA approved for human use-not included in the classification of antiarrhythmic drugs.

78 Daffodil – Narcissus. Daphne. The berries (either red or yellow) are poisonous, causing burns to mouth and digestive tract, followed by coma. Often fatal. Darnel – Lolium temulentum.

79 Datura  Contains the alkaloids scopolamine 
& atropine. Datura stramonium (commonly known as jimson weed, thorn) All plant parts poisonous, causing abnormal thirst, vision distortions, delirium, incoherence, coma. Often fatal. Used as a hallucinogenic drug by the natives in Americas and others.  Incorrect dosage can lead to death.

80 Deathcamas – various genera in the Melanthieae :- species whose common name includes "deathcamas",
like; Amianthium,  Anticlea,  Stenanthium,  Toxicoscordion  &  Zigadenus. All plant parts toxic, due to the presence of alkaloids. Grazing animals, such as sheep and cattle, may be affected and human fatalities have occurred.

81 Delphinium (also known as larkspur).
Contains the alkaloid delsoline. Young plants & seeds-poisonous, causing nausea, muscle twitches, paralysis, often fatal.

82 Dendrocnide moroides (also known as stinging tree and gympie gympie).
Capable of inflicting a painful sting when touched. Stinging may last for several days and is exacerbated by touching, rubbing, and cold. Can be fatal.

83 Dicentra cucullaria (also known as bleeding heart and Dutchman's breeches).
Leaves & roots poisonous, cause convulsions and other nervous symptoms. Dichapetalum cymosum (also known as gifblaar). Well known as a livestock poison in South Africa; plant contains the metabolic poison  fluoroacetic acid.

84 Swelling can be severe enough to block breathing, leading to death.
Dieffenbachia  (commonly known as dumbcane'). All parts are poisonous, causing intense burning, irritation, and immobility of the tongue, mouth, and throat. Swelling can be severe enough to block breathing, leading to death.

85 Cause irregular heartbeat, general digestive upset, and confusion.
Digitalis purpurea (commonly known as foxglove). Leaves, seeds, & flowers poisonous, containing cardiac or other steroid  glycosides. Cause irregular heartbeat, general digestive upset, and confusion. Can be fatal.

86 Doll's eyes –  Actaea pachypoda.
Elder/Elderberry – Sambucus. Euonymus europaeus (commonly known as spindle, European spindle or spindle tree). Fruit poisonous-contains the alkaloids theobromine & caffeine amongst other substances, as well as an extremely bitter terpene.

87 Poisonings more common in young children, who are enticed by the brightly coloured fruits.
Ingestion can result in liver & kidney damage and even death. Many other species of Euonymus, many of which are also poisonous.

88 Gelsemium sempervirens (common name yellow jessamine).
All parts are poisonous, causing nausea and vomiting. Often fatal. Possible to become ill from ingesting honey made from jessamine nectar. Excoecaria agallocha (common name milky mangrove, blind-your-eye mangrove and river poison tree). Contact with latex can cause skin irritation and blistering; eye contact can cause temporary blindness.

89 False hellebore – Veratrum.
Frangipani – Plumeria. Giant hogweed– Heracleum mantegazzianum. Gympie gympie – Dendrocnide moroides. Heart of Jesus – Caladium.

90 Shakespears advice on plant poisons
still applies:"Virtue itself turns to vice, being misapplied, & vice sometimes by action dignified. Within the infant rind of this small flower, Poison heth residence, & medicine power.

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