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The Extraordinary Properties of Water Water threeA water molecule (H 2 O), is made up of three atoms --- one oxygen and two hydrogen. H H O.

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Presentation on theme: "The Extraordinary Properties of Water Water threeA water molecule (H 2 O), is made up of three atoms --- one oxygen and two hydrogen. H H O."— Presentation transcript:

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2 The Extraordinary Properties of Water

3 Water threeA water molecule (H 2 O), is made up of three atoms --- one oxygen and two hydrogen. H H O

4 Water is Polar oxygen atom attracts more electronsIn each water molecule, the oxygen atom attracts more than its "fair share" of electrons oxygennegativeThe oxygen end “acts” negative hydrogenpositiveThe hydrogen end “acts” positive POLARCauses the water to be POLAR neutral Zero Net ChargeHowever, Water is neutral (equal number of e- and p+) --- Zero Net Charge

5 Hydrogen Bonds Exist Between Water Molecules Formed between a highly Electronegative atom of a polar molecule and a HydrogenFormed between a highly Electronegative atom of a polar molecule and a Hydrogen One hydrogen bond is weak, but many hydrogen bonds are strongOne hydrogen bond is weak, but many hydrogen bonds are strong

6 Interaction Between Water Molecules Negative Oxygen end of one water molecule is attracted to the Positive Hydrogen end of another water molecule to form a HYDROGEN BOND

7 What are the Properties of Water?

8 Properties of Water At sea level, pure water boils at 100 °C and freezes at 0 °C.At sea level, pure water boils at 100 °C and freezes at 0 °C. The boiling temperature of water decreases at higher elevations (lower atmospheric pressure).The boiling temperature of water decreases at higher elevations (lower atmospheric pressure). For this reason, an egg will take longer to boil at higher altitudesFor this reason, an egg will take longer to boil at higher altitudes

9 Properties of Water CohesionCohesion

10 Cohesion Attraction between particles of the same substance (why water is attracted to itself)Attraction between particles of the same substance ( why water is attracted to itself) Results in Surface tension (a measure of the strength of water’s surface) Results in Surface tension (a measure of the strength of water’s surface) Produces a surface film on water that allows insects to walk on the surface of waterProduces a surface film on water that allows insects to walk on the surface of water

11 Cohesion … Helps insects walk across water

12 Properties of Water CohesionCohesion AdhesionAdhesion

13 Adhesion Attraction between two different substances. Attraction between two different substances. Water will make hydrogen bonds with other surfaces such as glass, soil, plant tissues, and cotton. Water will make hydrogen bonds with other surfaces such as glass, soil, plant tissues, and cotton. Capillary action-water molecules will “tow” each other along when in a thin glass tube.Capillary action-water molecules will “tow” each other along when in a thin glass tube. Example: transpiration process which plants and trees remove water from the soil, and paper towels soak up water.Example: transpiration process which plants and trees remove water from the soil, and paper towels soak up water.

14 Adhesion Causes Capillary Action Which gives water the ability to “climb” structures

15 Adhesion Also Causes Water to … Form spheres & hold onto plant leaves Attach to a silken spider web

16 Why does water form? In a water molecule two hydrogen atoms form single covalent bonds with an oxygen atom. The bonds are formed to create a “stable” molecule. Oxygen needs 2 more electrons to be stable. Hydrogen needs 1 more electron to be stable. *Gives water more structure than other liquids*

17 Sticky Molecule Article Water Activity Directions: 1.Color 1.All oxygen RED 2.All hydrogen Blue 3.Two Electrons Yellow 2.Cut all circles 3.Glue 1.Oxygen nucleus over center of O 2.Hydrogen nuclei over H 4.Glue oxygen and Hydrogen to paper 5.Place electrons ask teacher confirmation. 6.Glue Electrons 7.Write Article by answering questions

18 Sticky Molecule Article Water Activity 1.Name the elements found in the water molecule. What is the ratio of hydrogen to oxygen. 2.How does one molecule of water form? What is the name of the bond (label it in your picture) 3.Describe a polar molecule. Also label this in your picture! 4.How do two molecules of water stick together? What is the name of the bond and property? 5.Describe what is happening when water flows down a piece of wet yarn.

19 Properties of Water CohesionCohesion AdhesionAdhesion Universal SolventUniversal Solvent

20 Water ……a.k.a the Universal Solvent Water is the solvent of Life! - Because of the polarity water is able to dissolve the many substances. Solute – substance dissolved in a solvent to form a solution Solvent – fluid that dissolves solutes

21 Solving Dissolving Lab!

22 Solubility Lab! – ws#6

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26 Properties of Water CohesionCohesion AdhesionAdhesion High Specific HeatHigh Specific Heat

27 High Specific Heat Amount of heat needed to raise or lower 1g of a substance 1° C. Amount of heat needed to raise or lower 1g of a substance 1° C. Water resists temperature change, both for heating and cooling.Water resists temperature change, both for heating and cooling. Water can absorb or release large amounts of heat energy with little change in actual temperature.Water can absorb or release large amounts of heat energy with little change in actual temperature.

28 The amount of heat that a substance can “hold” is called Heat Capacity. Three-fourths of the earth is covered by water. The water serves as a large heat “sink” (or bank) responsible for: Water holds onto Heat and won’t let it go! 1.Prevention of temperature fluctuations that are outside the range suitable for life. 2.Coastal (Beach) areas having a mild climate 3.A more stable marine (water) environment 28

29 Properties of Water CohesionCohesion AdhesionAdhesion High Specific HeatHigh Specific Heat High Heat of VaporizationHigh Heat of Vaporization

30 High Heat of Vaporization Amount of energy to convert 1g or a substance from a liquid to a gasAmount of energy to convert 1g or a substance from a liquid to a gas In order for water to evaporate, hydrogen bonds must be broken.In order for water to evaporate, hydrogen bonds must be broken. As water evaporates, it removes a lot of heat with it.As water evaporates, it removes a lot of heat with it.

31 High Heat of Vaporization 540 cal/g.Water's heat of vaporization is 540 cal/g. In order for water to evaporate, each gram must GAIN 540 calories (temperature doesn’t change o C).In order for water to evaporate, each gram must GAIN 540 calories (temperature doesn’t change o C). As water evaporates, it removes a lot of heat with it (cooling effect).As water evaporates, it removes a lot of heat with it (cooling effect).

32 Water vaporWater vapor forms a kind of global ‘‘blanket” which helps to keep the Earth warm. Heat radiated from the sunHeat radiated from the sun warmed surface of the earth is absorbed and held by the vapor by the vapor.

33 Properties of Water CohesionCohesion AdhesionAdhesion High Specific HeatHigh Specific Heat High Heat of VaporizationHigh Heat of Vaporization Less Dense as a SolidLess Dense as a Solid

34 Water is Less Dense as a Solid Ice is less dense Ice is less dense as a solid than as a liquid (ice floats) hydrogen bonds constantly being broken and reformed. Liquid water has hydrogen bonds that are constantly being broken and reformed. Frozen water crystal-like lattice Frozen water forms a crystal-like lattice whereby molecules are set at fixed distances.

35 Water is Less Dense as a Solid Which is ice and which is water?Which is ice and which is water?

36 Water is Less Dense as a Solid WaterIce

37 Only water is found _____________ as a SOLID, LIQUID, and GAS on Earth! 37 While all elements will change states, only some compounds will. Water changes state within a very narrow range, allowing it to snow, rain, and evaporate… all on the same day!

38 Ice is less dense than liquid water! Solids are usually more dense than liquids because their molecules are closer together. Liquids are more dense than gases… but not for water. Water forms a ___________________ structure which makes ice (solid water) less dense than liquid water. 38

39 Solid Organize d Liquid Disorganize d Gas Free Floating

40 Water “grows” when freezing: 1. This causes potholes on road and weathering of rocks. 2. It prevents water from freezing from the bottom up. Ice forms on the surface first—the freezing of the water releases heat to the water below creating insulation. This makes transitions between seasons less abrupt. 40


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