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First Aid is the immediate care to the injured or suddenly ill person

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Presentation on theme: "First Aid is the immediate care to the injured or suddenly ill person"— Presentation transcript:

1 First Aid is the immediate care to the injured or suddenly ill person
What is First Aid? First Aid is the immediate care to the injured or suddenly ill person First Aid does not take the place of proper medical treatment. It consists only of giving temporary assistance until competent medical care, if needed, is obtained, or until the chance for recovery without medical care is ensured. Most injuries and illnesses require only first aid care. Properly applied, first aid may mean the difference between life and death, rapid recovery and long hospitalization, or temporary disability and permanent injury.

2 Three general action steps to take in an emergency:
1. CHECK the scene and the victim. Check the victim for level of consciousness, breathing, pulse and bleeding. 2. CALL 911 or the local emergency number. 3. CARE for the victim.

3 The First Aid Kit Keep a first aid kit at HOME and in the family CAR.
Carry a first aid kit when you participate in OUTDOOR ACTIVITIES, such as camping. Add SPECIAL MEDICINES you or family members need. List of supplies for kit: Thermometer Syrup Of Ipecac Plastic Bags Triangular Bandages Gauze Pads & Roller Gauze Cold Pack Disposable Gloves Adhesive Tape Hand Cleaner Adhesive Bandages Small Flashlight Scissors & Tweezers Blanket Antiseptic Ointment

4 Universal Precautions
Steps taken to prevent the spread of disease by treating all human blood and body fluids as if they contain HIV, HBV, and other pathogens 1. Wear disposable gloves 2. Wash your hands with waterless antiseptic hand cleanser after removing gloves 3. Use a face mask with a one-way valve when performing first aid for breathing emergencies 4. Take other precautions to avoid contact with the victims blood. 5. Do not eat or drink anything while giving first aid. 6. Do not touch your mouth, eyes, or nose while caring for the victim.

5 Emergencies at Home: Your family should be prepared for an emergency.
1. Keep the local emergency telephone number by your telephone 2. Keep a list of other important telephone numbers by your telephone, such as the telephone number for the: A. Fire Department – B. Police C. Poison Control Center – D. Your Physician - __________________ E. Your Dentist - __________________ 3. Keep the names and telephone numbers of neighbors who would help, too. 4. Keep family medical records where you can get them quickly

6 Emergencies at Home: Your family should be prepared for an emergency.
5. Wear a medic alert tag if you have a health condition. 6. Keep first aid kits where they might be needed. 7. Keep items needed to follow universal precautions available.

7 How to Make an Emergency Telephone Call
1. Remain calm and speak clearly 2. Describe the exact location of the emergency. Give the address and ways for emergency personnel to find the location. Naming the closest intersection or a landmark is helpful. 3. Give your name, what happened, the number of people involved, the condition of the injured people, and the help that has been given. 4. Give the telephone number of the telephone you are using. This makes it possible for someone to call you back if you get disconnected or more information is needed. 5. Listen carefully if you are told how to care for the victim. Write down directions if necessary. Give directions to other people who are caring for the victim. 6. Do not hang up the phone until you are told to do so. 7. Return to the victim. Provide care if appropriate. Stay with the victim until help arrives.

8 Rescue Breathing Steps
for Adults and Older Children Step 1 Roll victim on to their back. Tilt victim’s head back. Place one hand under the chin, lift up while pressing down on forehead with other hand. Pinch nostrils shut. Step 2 Wear face mask or shield. Follow directions for mask. Apply mask. Open airway. Give 2 slow breaths. Watch if chest slowly rises. Check for pulse. Use index and 3rd finger on carotid artery on neck. Step 3

9 Rescue Breathing Steps
for Adults and Older Children IF PULSE IS PRESENT BUT STILL NOT BREATHING.... Step 4 Give 1 slow breath every 5 seconds. Remove mouth after each breath so victim can exhale. Step 5 Recheck pulse and breathing every minute. Continue rescue breathing as long as victim is not breathing, but has pulse. IF NO PULSE, THE HEART IS NOT BEATING. CPR IS NEEDED!

10 Rescue Breathing Steps
for Infants and Young Children Roll victim on to back. Tilt victim’s head slightly back. Step 1 Step 2 Wear face mask or shield. Follow directions for mask. Apply mask. Open airway. Give 2 slow breaths. Watch if chest slowly rises. Remove mouth after each breath so victim can exhale. Step 3 Check for pulse. Use index and 3rd finger and check brachial artery on the inside of upper arm.

11 Rescue Breathing Steps
for Infants and Young Children IF PULSE IS PRESENT BUT STILL NOT BREATHING.... Step 4 Give 1 slow breath every 3 seconds. Remove mouth after each breath so victim can exhale. Recheck pulse and breathing every minute. Continue rescue breathing as long as victim is not breathing, but has a pulse. Step 5 IF NO PULSE, THE HEART IS NOT BEATING. CPR IS NEEDED!

12 CPR A- Airway B- Breathing C- Circulation
CARDIOPULMONARY RESUSCITATION (CPR) Is a first aid technique that is used to restore heartbeat and breathing. The ABC’s of CPR help you determine the need for CPR. A- Airway Open the victims airway Perform rescue breathing if breathing has stopped B- Breathing Perform CPR if pulse is absent. C- Circulation

13 Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Steps
for Adults and Older Children A Person Who Is Trained In CPR Should: Step 1 Roll victim on to back. Find lower breastbone, measure up width of 2 fingers. Place heel of other hand on sternum next to fingers. Place other hand on top of first hand. Position shoulders over hands to exert pressure straight down. Compress chest 30 times (rate of 100/min.). Pressure should depress the breastbone 1 1/2 - 2 inches. Step 2 Wear face mask or shield. Follow directions for mask. Apply mask. Open airway. Give 2 slow breaths. Watch if chest slowly rises. Remove mouth to allow victim to exhale. Step 3

14 Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Steps
for Adults and Older Children Step 4 Do 3 more sets of 30 compressions and 2 slow breaths. Step 5 Make a 5 second check to see if the victim has a pulse and is breathing. IF NO PULSE...... Step 6 Continue sets of 30 compressions and 2 slow breaths. Call the local emergency number and obtain medical care immediately.

15 Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Steps
for Children A Person Who Is Trained In CPR Should: Roll victim on to their back. Place heel of your hand on the center of the breastbone. Step 1 Step 2 Position shoulders over hands to exert pressure straight down. Compress chest 30 times (at rate of 100 compressions/minute). Step 3 Wear face mask or shield. Follow directions for mask. Apply mask. Open airway. Give 2 slow breaths. Watch if chest slowly rises. Remove mouth to allow victim to exhale.

16 Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Steps
for Children Step 4 Do sets of 30 compressions and 2 slow breaths for about 1 minute. Step 5 Make a 5 second check to see if the victim has a pulse and is breathing. IF NO PULSE...... Step 6 Continue sets of 30 compressions and 2 slow breaths. Recheck pulse and breathing every few minutes. Call the local emergency number and obtain medical care immediately.

17 Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Steps
for Infants A Person Who Is Trained In CPR Should: Roll victim on to their back. Place the third and fourth finger on the center of the breastbone. Compress chest 30 times. Step 1 Wear face mask or shield. Follow directions for mask. Apply mask. Open airway. Give 2 slow breaths. Watch if chest slowly rises. Remove mouth to allow victim to exhale. Step 2 Step 3 Repeat sets of 30 compressions and 2 slow breaths for about 1 minute.

18 Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Steps
for Infants Step 4 Check to see if the victim has a pulse and is breathing. IF NO PULSE...... Step 5 Continue sets of 30 compressions and 2 slow breathes. Recheck pulse and breathing every few minutes.

19 Types of Bleeding Types of Wounds Bruise Laceration Puncture Abrasion
Avulsion

20 Pressure points—brachial
Steps to Control Bleeding Call the local emergency number and obtain medical care immediately. Step 1 Cover the wound with clean cloth or sterile dressing and apply direct pressure with hand. Add more cloth if blood soaks through, but do not remove first cloth. Do not remove any objects lodged deep in wound. Step 2 Elevate the wounded body part above the level of the heart. This helps reduce blood flow to the area. Step 3 Cover the cloth or sterile dressing with roller bandage. IF BLEEDING DOES NOT STOP Continue direct pressure to the wound. Locate closest pressure point. Pressure point technique compresses main artery that supplies blood to the area. This technique stops circulation in area. Should be used with direct pressure and elevation. Pressure points—brachial

21 Nosebleeds A nosebleed is a loss of blood from the mucous membranes that line the nose. NOSEBLEEDS ARE USUALLY EASY TO CONTROL. 1. Have the victim sit with his/her head slightly forward and pinch the nostrils firmly together. Sitting slightly forward helps the blood flow toward the external opening of the nose instead of backwards down the throat. 2. The nostrils should be pinched firmly together for about 5 minutes before releasing. The victim should breath through the mouth and spit out any blood in the mouth. 3. An ice pack may be applied to the bridge of the nose. 4. Repeat this procedure for another 10 minutes if the bleeding does not stop. 5. Get prompt medical help if bleeding continues or if you suspect serious injury.

22 First Aid for Poisoning
A POISON is a substance that causes injury, illness, or death if it enters the body. Poisoning can occur when a person: Inhalation SWALLOWS a poison BREATHES a poison Has a poison on the SKIN that is ABSORBED into the body. Absorption Call the local emergency number and obtain medical care immediately. Ingestion Injection

23 First Aid for Poisoning
Steps to be taken when you suspect someone has been poisoned. 1. Be CAUTIOUS. Protect your health and safety. Do not risk INJURY. 2. Move the victim to a safe LOCATION if necessary. 3. Treat the victim for life-threatening injuries. Keep the victims airway OPEN. A- Airway Perform RESCUE BREATHING if necessary. Remember to use a FACE MASK or SHIELD B- Breathing If you have CPR training, perform CPR if the victim has no PULSE. C- Circulation 4. Gather information about the cause of poisoning. determine the TYPE of poison. Ask the VICTIM what the type of poison might be. Be on the lookout for EMPTY BOTTLES and CONTAINERS OR NEEDLES. Recognize FUMES and ODORS that might be the cause. Are there BEES, SNAKES, or poisonous PLANTS in the area? Try to determine how much poison has been taken and when.

24 for BURNS A BURN is an injury caused by heat, electricity, chemicals, or radiation. The seriousness of a burn depends on: The CAUSE of the burn The LENGTH of time the victim was EXPOSED to the source of the burn The LOCATION of the burn on the BODY The DEPTH of the burn The SIZE of the burn The victim’s AGE and HEALTH condition

25 First-Degree Burns A first-degree burn is a burn which affects the top layer of skin. Most SUNBURNS are first-degree burns. First-degree burns usually heal in SIX DAYS without permanent scaring. First aid for a first-degree burn includes the following steps: 1. Stop the BURNING. Get the victim out of the SUN. Put out flames that are burning clothes or skin. 2. Cool the burned area with WATER as soon as possible. Soak the area with tap water, a garden hose, or have the victim get into the bath or shower. Use sheets or towels soaked in COLD WATER to cool a burn on the face or other areas that cannot be soaked. Keep adding cool water. 3. Wear LATEX GLOVES. LOOSELY bandage the area with a dry, sterile, dressing. 4. Place COTTON or GAUZE between burned FINGERS or TOES.

26 First aid for a second-degree burn includes the following steps:
Second-Degree Burns A second-degree burn is a burn that involves the top layers of the skin. Second-degree burns usually heal in TWO TO FOUR WEEKS. Slight SCARRING can occur. First aid for a second-degree burn includes the following steps: Call the local emergency number and obtain medical care immediately. 1. Stop the BURNING. Remove the victim from the SOURCE of the burn. 2. Cool the burned area with COOL WATER or COLD CLOTHS. 3. Cover the area with dry, sterile dressing or clean cloth. Keep the cover LOOSE. This helps prevent INFECTION and reduce PAIN. Do not break BLISTERS or remove tissue. 4. ELEVATE the burned area. 5. Cover the victim with clean, dry sheets if burns cover large parts of the body. Treat for SHOCK

27 First aid for a third-degree burn includes the following steps:
Third-Degree Burns A third-degree burn is a burn that involves all layers of the skin and some underlying tissue. PERMANENT SCARRING often occurs. Some victims require SKIN GRAFTING and PLASTIC SURGERY. First aid for a third-degree burn includes the following steps: Call the local emergency number and obtain medical care immediately. 1. Treat for SHOCK. 2. Check immediately if the victim is BREATHING. Give RESCUE BREATHING if necessary. Do not open blisters or remove pieces of tissue. Do not apply COLD. 3. Cover the BURNED AREA with a dry, sterile dressing; clean cloth; or sheet.

28 A fracture is a break or a crack in a bone.
Types of Fractures

29 FRACTURE First Aid for fractures includes the following steps:
Call the local emergency number and obtain medical care immediately. 1. Treat for BLEEDING and SHOCK. 2. Keep the injured part from MOVING. Use a splint when appropriate. Keep a victim with a HEAD injury still. 3. Apply ICE to the break or crack to prevent SWELLING. 4. Follow universal precautions. Control BLEEDING. 5. Get prompt MEDICAL help.

30 DISLOCATIONS A dislocation is the movement of a bone from its joint.
The signs of dislocation are PAIN, swelling upon MOVEMENT, loss of MOVEMENT and DEFORMITY. First Aid for dislocations includes the following steps: Call the local emergency number and obtain medical care immediately. 1. Splint ABOVE and BELOW the dislocated joint 2. Apply COLD COMPRESSES

31 Rest Ice Compression Elevation
Rest the INJURED hand. Ice Apply COLD, such as a cold COMPRESS, ICE PACK, or COLD WATER. Apply an ELASTIC bandage to limit INTERNAL bleeding. Do not apply too TIGHTLY. Check the body part for pain, numbness, change in color, tingling. After 30 MINUTES, remove the bandage and the ice for 15 MINUTES. Then reapply for 30 MINUTES. Repeat the procedure for 3 HOURS. Compression Elevation ELEVATE the injured part above the level of the HEART. This helps drain BLOOD and FLUID from the injured area.

32 SPRAINS A sprain is an injury to the ligaments, tendons, and soft tissue around a joint caused by undue stretching. 1. Follow the RICE treatment 2. Get prompt medical help if a FRACTURE is suspected.

33 STRAINS First Aid for strains:
A strain is an over stretching of muscles and/or tendons. One of the most common strains involves the muscles of the BACK First Aid for strains: 1. Follow the RICE treatment 2. Get prompt medical help for a SEVERE strain.


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