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13 Pot-in-Pot refridgerator Natália Ružičková 7

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13 Task The ‘pot-in-pot refrigerator’ is a device that keeps food cool using the principle of evaporative cooling. It consists of a pot placed inside a bigger pot with the space between them filled with a wet porous material, e.g. sand. How might one achieve the best cooling effect? 2 →Low temperature →Fast cooling

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13 Mechanism 3 Wet porous material: Evaporation latent heat cooling Heat transfer from the environment Equillibrium:

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13 Preliminary Experiment Porous material: sand 4 Works, but could be better

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13 Evaporation requirements Must be wet (capillarity) Exposed to air flow 5

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13 Big granules: Better airflow Water drains down Small granules: Can soak with water Little space for airflow Sand: a granular material 6

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13 Other kind of porous material: Cloth Gets soaked with water Can be exposed to air flow on sufficient area 7

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13 Cloth vs. sand: the difference 8 We have a working refrigerator

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13 A working refrigerator 9 Inner pot Outer pot Porous material: cloth Liquid (water) for evaporation Content Airflow

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13 Task “How might one achieve the best cooling effect?” Simple model of the cooling Experimentally verify & optimize Estimate the best possible cooling 10 →Low temperature →Fast cooling

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13 MODEL OF THE COOLING

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13 Model of the cooling effect 12

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13 Model of the cooling Calorimetry: Final temperature drop: Speed of cooling: 13

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EXPERIMENTAL VERIFICATION & INVESTIGATION

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13 1. High vs. low outer pot 15

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13 High vs. low pot: final temperature 16 Both models: the same terminal temperature

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13 High vs. low pot: rate of cooling 17 Low outer pot: Less water smaller thermal capacity faster cooling

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13 2. Size and shape of the fridge Terminal temperature: Independent of size/shape Speed of cooling: Independent of size/shape 18 Empty refrigerator: Proportional to surface area

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13 Effect of different sizes 19

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13 Effect of different size 20

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13 Effect of different shapes 21 Size and shape of an empty fridge: No effect on cooling

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13 3. What’s inside Terminal temperature: Independent of content Speed of cooling: High capacity slower cooling 22

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13 Changing heat capacity of the fridge 23 Air, quicker cooling Sand, slower cooling Water, slowest cooling Bigger capacity slower cooling No effect on final temperature

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13 4. Different liquid Terminal temperature: Grows with volatility & latent heat Speed of cooling: Independent of liquid (only a small capacity difference) 24

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13 Water VS. Etanol: 25 More volatile liquid lower terminal temperature

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13 Water vs. ethanol: exponential fit 26 WaterEthanol Different liquids similar speed of cooling Slight difference: different thermal capacity

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13 WHAT IS THE BEST POSSIBLE EFFECT?

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13 Minimal temperature estimation Analogical phenomenon: Assman psychrometer Wet and dry thermometer Wet is cooler due to evaporation Equilibrium state: Solution: 28 Sufficient airflow

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13 Wet bulb vs. refrigerator 29 We can get close to the theoretical minimum

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13 Minimal achievable temperature 30

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13 Best cooling effect 31 Sufficien t air flow volatile liquid with low concentration in air (eg. Ethanol) Minimise thermal capacity of the fridge (eg. Low outer pot) Maximize the area of evaporation speed Minimal temperature

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13 Thank you for your attention 32

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13 APPENDICES

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13 Assman psychrometer theory Assumptions: Air cools to T fridge ; vapor pressure saturates (thanks to fast airflow) Equilibrium of heat flow: Numerically solve for (complicated function ) 34 Wet bulb

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13 EXTRA MEASUREMENTS

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13 Airflow importance 36

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13 Water vs. ethanol: Rate of evaporation 37 Ethanol: more volatile

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13 Do we need cloth or not? 38

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13 What is the best material for cloth? 39

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13 Why the type of cloth does NOT matter? 1) Water fills gaps Water fills gaps. The surface of water = the area of evaporation The same as normal cloth Area of evaporation = area through which heat gets in Equilibrium temperature doesn’t change 40 2) Water soaks

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13 Effect of different sizes 41

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13 Effect of different shapes 42

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13 Our refrigerator 43

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13 Covered VS uncovered areas 44 Height of cloth Uncovered areas heat gets in Covered areas Evaporation + heat gets in

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13 Does area of cloth matter? 45 Whole fridge must be covered

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13 Why istn’s the second pot needed? 46 Area of evaporation = area through which heat expands We do not need the second pot only requirement for fridge’s surface …ISOLATED AREAS MUST BE UNCOVERED WITH CLOTH So that area of evaporation = area trough heat gets in

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13 Speed of cooling 47 k1= ability of liquid to evaporate [kg/m3] k2= part of air which cools down [J/Km3] Temperature difference 1/tau Properties of liquid

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13 Assman psychrometer: theory Equillibrium of heat flow: Air cools to Tfridge; vapor pressure saturates: 48

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13 Assman psychrometer: theory Surrounding air: –Transfers heat to the cloth: –Absorbs water vapor (heat used for evaporation) Equilibrium (terminal temperature): 49

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13 Minimal T: theoretical estimation Terminal temperature: Numerically solved for (complicated function ) 50

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13 Conclusion – What should the most effective refrigerator look like? Minimal temperature: –sufficient air flow, maximize evaporation area –volatile liquid with low concentration in air (eg. Ethanol) Fastest cooling: –Fast air flow –Minimise thermal capacity of the fridge (eg. Low outer pot) Prediction of minimal temperature 51

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Saturation = filled to capacity

Saturation = filled to capacity

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