Presentation on theme: "Les défis de l’écotourisme face au développement territorial durable par Arq. Hector Ceballos-Lascurain, Environmental Architect and International Ecotourism."— Presentation transcript:
Les défis de l’écotourisme face au développement territorial durable par Arq. Hector Ceballos-Lascurain, Environmental Architect and International Ecotourism Consultant, Director General PICE, Mexico City
Entre projets locaux de développement et globalisation de l’économie: quels équilibres pour les espaces régionaux? ….L’Ecotourisme peut être une solution!
What is Sustainable Development? - Improving the quality of human life while living within our ecological means. - Development which provides economic, social, and environmental benefits in the long term, having regard to future generations.
What is Ecotourism? Sustainable tourism is an umbrella concept. Ecotourism should be seen as a a subset of sustainable tourism.
Définition de l’Ecotourisme Selon l’ IUCN (Union Mondiale pour la Nature), l’Ecotourisme est: "voyage et visite environnementalement responsables dans des espaces naturels relativement calmes dans le but d’apprécier la nature (et n'importe quelles fonctions culturelles accompagnantes - tant passées que présentes), qui promeuvent la conservation, créent de faibles impacts négatives et participent activement à l’amélioration socio- économique des populations locales d’une manière durable.” Ceballos-Lascuráin, 1993
IMPORTANCE OF NATURAL AREAS
World Tourism World’s most important civil industry: US$4,000,000,000,000. Employs 127 million workers (1 in 15 workers worldwide). In 2008, international tourist arrivals : 924 million Domestic tourism may be ten times this figure. International tourism generated US$ 856 billion (€ 625 billion) in 2007, or 30 % of the world’s exports of services. Present trends… Source: WTO (2009)
Ecotourism is the Fastest Growing Segment of Tourism
Ecotourism attractions may be: Natural...
Ecotourism Attraction Inventories There are 3 categories of Ecotourism attractions: Focal Complementary Support
Focal Attractions They are the most distinctive and relevant elements of the natural and/or cultural heritage found in an ecoturism destination or region.
Complementary Attractions They provide added value to the ecotourism destination, contributing to a richer and more diverse tourism experience.
Support Attractions They are those artificial elements (facilities and services) that provide satisfaction to the visitor, facilitating his visit.
Ecotourism product: systematic inventory of its ecoturism attractions. EP = (FA + CA + SA)
Some preliminary world ecotourism statistics -20 % of world tourism. -Nature tourism generates 7% of all international travel expenditure. -Fastest growing segment of world tourism (growing at a rate of 15 to 30 % per year).
BIRD WATCHING Bird watchers (birders): largest single group of ecotourists around the World. U.S.: Over 60 million birders. Birding-relateds expenses in the U.S.: $24 billion per year, (employing 800,000 people). U.K.: over 1 million “serious” bird watchers. Source: C.H.Sekercioglu Conservation through Commodification. Birding Vol. 35 N° 4 August 2003:
BIRD WATCHING (II)
There are ecotourists that are interested in other specific fields...
Emerging Trends in Global Ecotourism Ecotourism : a key sustainable development option for the last two decades. A vital tool for nature conservation and for raising the living standards of rural people. Major contributor to a broader appreciation of the rich natural ecosystems of our planet. It is very important to always have in mind that an ecotourist is primarily a nature lover. Growing local community participation in ecotourism development. Private/public partnership. Physical planning of ecotourism facilities.
Benefits of Ecotourism to Local Communities: Ecotourism : a key sustainable development option for local communities over the last two decades. A vital tool for nature conservation and for raising the living standards of rural people. Major contributor to a broader appreciation of the rich natural ecosystems of our planet (environmental education). Ecotourism gives added value to existing resources. Gives pride to local communities.
Challenges of Ecotourism - Modify attitudes and communal and personal practices (move towards SD). - Communities should value their heritage better. - Achieve appropriate organization (including private/public partnership). - Appropriate specialized training. - Avoid temptations of inadequate and inequitable deals with private sector. - Distinguish between true ecotourism and non-sustainable adventure tourism.
Territorial approach to Ecotourism Ecotourism : a regional phenomenon and an effective tool for achieving sustainable territorial development. Important goal of Ecotourism: improve living conditions of rural communities by promoting productive diversification and creation of local value added with base on sustainable use of native forest and other natural resources. ….in short, by promoting a territorial organizing process of a region.
2500 Years of Historical Evolution of Tourism Coastal Development Around the World: A Hypothetical Model
Territorial Development of Coastal Areas Model I: Conventional Defficient Planning or No Planning
Territorial Development of Coastal Areas Model 2: Sustainable Territorial Planning Model 1: Conventional No Planning 2 1
WADI EL GEMAL ECOTOURISM/ECOLODGE PLAN, EGYPT ARCH. HECTOR CEBALLOS-LASCURAIN EPAT DELIVERY ORDER 40 WINROCK INTERNATIONAL NOVEMBER 1997
TOURISM FACILITIES IN PROTECTED AREAS Tourism facilities in protected areas should be particularly designed in an environmentally-friendly way, since they are frequently located in areas of great scenic beauty and ecological significance.
What is an Ecolodge? -An Ecolodge is a nature-dependent tourist lodge that meets the philosophy and principles of ecotourism. - Some key areas of ecolodge development are: Costa Rica, Belize, Ecuador, Peru, Brazil, Australia, New Zealand, Kenya and South Africa. (Hawkins et al. 1995)
Kapawi Ecolodge, Ecuador
Ecolodge in Sian Ka’an Biosphere Reserve, Mexico
ARQ. HECTOR CEBALLOS-LASCURAIN Director General PICE Program of International Consultancy on Ecotourism Special Advisor on Ecotourism to IUCN Camino Real al Ajusco 551 Col. Xolalpa (Tepepan), Tlalpan México, DF, MEXICO Tel. (52) ; Fax (52) Web site: