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C-footprint of Bangalore city’s waste management system HN Chanakya Centre for Sustainable Technologies, IISc, Bangalore.

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Presentation on theme: "C-footprint of Bangalore city’s waste management system HN Chanakya Centre for Sustainable Technologies, IISc, Bangalore."— Presentation transcript:

1 C-footprint of Bangalore city’s waste management system HN Chanakya Centre for Sustainable Technologies, IISc, Bangalore

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3 Inadequacy and threats from septic tank /soak pits – Sewage treatment capacity is about 50% of the total water supplied (adding water recovered from bore wells). The BWSSB estimates wastewater = 80% of water supply – this does not account for nearly 40-50% of supplies from deep bore wells (400-500MLD, non-sustainable)

4 Wastes and waste related activities implicated in GHG production 1.Human and animal wastes undergoing decomposition 2.Urban solid wastes undergoing decomposition (during collection & at dumpsite) 3.Garden wastes /USW being burnt GHGs emission processes Organic material in human /animal wastes    methane + CO 2 (total absence of dissolved oxygen such as in black sewage) Proteins in wastes suffering anaerobic decomposition  Ammonia (NH 4 ) (Some ammonia escapes from dissolved form into atmosphere  quantum to be determined) Ammonia in wastewater being oxidised to NO 2  Nitrous oxide (N 2 O, 1%) (Nitrification process has a few mistakes, about 0.5-1% converted to N 2 O instead of NO 2 ) All organic material when decomposed lead finally to Carbon dioxide (CO 2 )

5 Decay of Micro- organisms Dead micro- organisms Decomposed by micro-organisms Small /Large Animal Excreta Eaten by small and large animals Human beings And Animals On land deposition of Human and Animal Excreta Human beings And Animals On land deposition of Human and Animal Excreta Eaten by small and large animals Decomposed by micro-organisms Small /Large Animal Excreta Dead micro- organisms Decay of Micro- organisms Atmospheric Carbon dioxide pool Photosynthesis by plants etc. Carbon Cycle interfered by Man in Purple (w.r.t. wastes) Human beings And Animals On land deposition of Human and Animal Excreta Human beings And Animals On land deposition of Human and Animal Excreta Decomposed by micro-organisms Human beings And Animals On land deposition of Human and Animal Excreta Dead micro- organisms Decomposed by micro-organisms Human beings And Animals On land deposition of Human and Animal Excreta Small /Large Animal Excreta Dead micro- organisms Decomposed by micro-organisms Human beings And Animals On land deposition of Human and Animal Excreta Small /Large Animal Excreta Dead micro- organisms Decomposed by micro-organisms Human beings And Animals On land deposition of Human and Animal Excreta Decay of Micro- organisms Small /Large Animal Excreta Dead micro- organisms Decomposed by micro-organisms Human beings And Animals On land deposition of Human and Animal Excreta Human beings And Animals On land deposition of Human and Animal Excreta Eaten by small and large animals Human beings And Animals On land deposition of Human and Animal Excreta Small /Large Animal Excreta Eaten by small and large animals Human beings And Animals On land deposition of Human and Animal Excreta Decomposed by micro-organisms Small /Large Animal Excreta Eaten by small and large animals Human beings And Animals On land deposition of Human and Animal Excreta Dead micro- organisms Decomposed by micro-organisms Small /Large Animal Excreta Eaten by small and large animals Human beings And Animals On land deposition of Human and Animal Excreta Respiration

6 Fossil fuels in transport/treatment etc. (not estimated) Transported and Composted Deposited on land dried rapidly and consumed by small and large animals Treated by soak-pits Human Excreta (and animal excreta) UGD sewage treated by anaerobic + aerobic routes (usual) 60% 30% 1% 9% Anaerobic and aerobic stages = some CH 4 (30-50%)+ CO 2 (50-70%) This proportion to be derived 100% anaerobic= 66%CH 4 + 33% CO 2 Methane in early stages only This proportion to be derived Needs to be estimated Anaerobic stage for 2-5d, experimental evidence needed ?

7 C-footprint from Wastes - 07Aug09 7 SourceNo.Fraction dried CH4 Sewage CH4compost CH4Gross CO 2 BMPt CH4 ‘000t Human (residents)52000000.10.22050.94105 50384.2 Human (floating popn.)20000000.20.22020.8702 1181.3 Cattle1850870.30.180110.3110.411 33255.6 Buffaloes274290.30.18020.320.42 757.0 Sheep1083170.30.22010.200.61 212.1 Goats413920.30.22000.200.60 14.6 Horses5000.10.22000.100.80 00.3 Dogs800000.50.22000.400.10 16.3 Cats*500000.70.22000.20 0 14.4 Pigs*1000.10.22000.800.10 0 Poultry*5000000.20.25010.110.71 319.3 Ducks5000.10.25000.100.80 00.0 other birds 0.2500 0 0 00.0 fish 0.0050 0 0 00.0 aquatics 0.0050 0 0 00.0 Total 022 62.9 22.4108825.4 Methane emissions from various sources of human and animal wastes assuming a 100% conversion to methane in the overall processing system. Note decimals are not shown and this is the “Worst Case Scenario”

8 SourceNo. dried in situ SewageSoak Pitcomposted Gross CO2 % t CH4 % % % ‘000 tons Human (residents) 52000000.110.6180.3140235265.54 Human (floating popn.) 20000000.200.85 7011398.43 Cattle 1850870.33 70.000.4414109.35 Buffaloes 274290.31 20.000.41324.40 Sheep 1083170.300.200.000.6014.60 Goats 413920.300.200.000.6001.76 Horses 5000.10 00.000.8000.12 Dogs 800000.500.400.000.1002.57 Cats* 500000.700.200.000.2001.46 Pigs* 1000.100.800.000.1000.09 Poultry* 5000000.200.100.000.7017.43 Ducks 5000.10 00.000.8000.01 other birds 0 0 0 000.00 fish 0 0 0 000.00 aquatics 0 0 0 000.00 Total 6 33 21 767515.75 C-footprint of Bangalore from human and animal wastes corrected for different methods of handling, processing, emission, etc. Please note that >90% footprint would be removed if methane could be recovered for local uses and makes it sustainable.

9 Nitrogen management in a.Human and Animal Urine b.Human and Animal Excreta c.Municipal Solid wastes

10 Nitrogen management in a.Human and Animal Urine -into UGD sewage -into soak-pits -deposited on land b.Human and Animal Excreta -into UGD sewage -into soak-pits -deposited on land c.Municipal Solid wastes (to be estimated) -Decomposition in collection systems -Dumped without treatment -Composted -Consumed by micro/macro fauna

11 Sources of GHGs a.Nitrogen going through processes of ammonification, nitrosification and nitrification results in N 2 O. Experimental and evidence based estimates not available. Generally 1-2% is used as default value. b.Ammonia volatilization from anaerobic systems

12 Influx = 77 tpd Human R 51.7 Human F 10.9 Maj Animals 12.3 Min Animals 2.0 Bangalore City Sewage Human R – 31.5 [60%] Human F – 6.5 [60%] Maj. Animals – 3.4 [28%] Min. Animals – 0.2 [28%] Soak pits Compost Human – 0.5 [1%] Maj. Animal – 5.2 [42%] Min. Animal -- 1.3 [52%] In situ drying Human – 7.3 [10%] Maj. Animals – 3.7 [30%] Min. Animals – 0.5 [19%] Biosphere Atmosphere Geosphere Hydrosphere 11.5 7.0 41.1  reuse /re-entry  GW flow  GHG /N 2 air  waste / USW  sewage flow 18.4

13 C-footprint from Wastes - 07Aug09 13 NoSourceNo.L/dUrea%TotalFraction driedSewage fraction Fraction composted Total N tons %factor t N 2 O % factort N 2 O %factor t N 2 O 1 Human (residents) 5200000 1.25 0.742.3100.0050.02890.010.410.0050 0.4 2 Human (floating.) 2000000 0.65 0.79.1200.0050.01800.010.100.0050 0.08 Total as N kg.d -1 or N 2 O51.40.030.45 0 0.48 3Cattle18508740.75.2300.0050.01300.010400.0050 0.03 4Buffaloes2742940.70.8300.0050300.010400.0050 0 5Sheep10831710.70.8300.0050150.010550.0050 0 6Goats4139210.70.3300.0050150.010550.0050 0 Total as N kg.d -1 70.010.020.010.04 7Horses500 1.6 00100.0050100.010800.0050 0 8Dogs80000 0.05 00500.0050400.010100.0050 0 9Cats*50000 0.05 00700.0050150.010150.0050 0 10Pigs*100 1.3 00100.0050800.010100.0050 0 11Poultry*500000 0.06 00200.0050100.010700.0050 0 12Ducks500 0.06 00100.0050100.010800.0050 0 13other birds 0.06 000.00500.0100.0050 0 14Fish00.00500.0100.0050 0 15Aquatics00.00500.0100.0050 0 16Total58.40.040.470.020.53 Nitrogen pool size arising from urine fraction undergoing different processes of mineralization and N 2 O liberation

14 C-footprint from Wastes - 07Aug09 14 No Source No.DM. d -1 N% TS TotalFraction driedSewage fractionFraction compostedTot al tonsN kg.d -1 %factorKg N 2 O%factorkg N 2 O%factorkg N 2 O 1Human (residents)5200000312.03.009360100.0054.7890.01083.310.0050.5 88 2Human (floating)200000060.03.001800200.0051.8800.01014.400.0050.0 16 Total as (DM.d -1 ) N kg.d -1 372111601296977094 3Cattle185087307.21.253841300.0055.8300.01011.5400.0057.7 25 4Buffaloes2742968.61.25857300.0051.3300.0102.6400.0051.7 6 5Sheep10831714.33.00429300.0050.6150.0100.6550.0051.2 2 6Goats413925.53.00164300.0050.2150.0100.2550.0050.5 1 Total as (DM.d -1 ) N kg.d -1 395.65291158714982205 7Horses5000.82.3018100.0050.0100.0100.0800.0050.1 0 8Dogs800004.03.00120500.0050.3400.0100.5100.0050.1 1 9Cats500002.53.0075700.0050.3150.0100.1150.0050.1 0 10Pigs1000.13.805100.0050.0800.0100.0100.0050.0 0 11Poultry50000030.06.001800200.0051.8100.0101.8700.0056.3 10 12Ducks5000.06.002100.0050.0100.0100.0800.0050.0 0 13Other birds0.06.0000.0050.00.0100.00.0050.0 0 Total as (DM.d -1 ) N kg.d -1 37.520204752411299 14Fish6.0000.0050.00.0100.00.0050.0 0 15Aquatics4.0000.0050.00.0100.00.0050.0 0 16Total8051847116.811518.0150 Consolidated data of N-pool sizes and N 2 O production from various sources and treatment methods for human and animal wastes (excreta) in Bangalore

15 c.Municipal Solid wastes (emissions to be estimated) -C loss in collection systems -C-lost when dumped without treatment -When composted -C-Consumed by micro/macro fauna -C-lost and emission during burning

16 Changes in USW composition from source to dump sites.

17 C-footprint from Wastes - 07Aug09 17 – anthropo-neogeogenesis Creating New Mountains /Valleys

18 C-footprint from Wastes - 07Aug09 18 VAM - windrow composting with auger /turning type aeration- 1960 technology

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21 a.Municipal Solid wastes (emissions to be estimated) -C loss in collection systems -C-lost when dumped without treatment -When composted -C-Consumed by micro/macro fauna -C-lost and emission during burning C-loss influenced by rain and dry weather -emission types during wet and dry period? b.C-footprint of MSW transportation c.C-emissions from leachates

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