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Swimming Pool Basics Dave Thompson

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1 Swimming Pool Basics Dave Thompson
Rick Woemmel

2 Basic Swimming Pool Design

3 What are questions that you have?
Problems How to… What is your most common service call?


5 Three answers to cloudy water
Flow Filtration Water Chemistry

6 What do we mean by “FLOW”?
Pump Plumbing Valves


8 How do we check for flow problems?
Flow Meter Hand in front of return Look into top of pump (most have clear lid) Look into skimmer for water flow Water surface movement Dye test


10 Flow Problems: Leaks Pump seal Clogged impeller (check baskets)
Suction Discharge Pump seal Clogged impeller (check baskets) Motor issues Bad valves etc

11 Filtration 3 main types of Filtration “pre-filters” such as baskets
Sand Cartridge DE “pre-filters” such as baskets Filters can be before or after a pump Most are on discharge side on pumps. Most are on suction side on spas (cartridge)

12 Sand Filtration Rapid sand High Rate Sand (most common)
Layers of sand / multiple tanks High Rate Sand (most common)

13 Cartridge Filtration Replaceable Media Most common in portable spas
Pleated fabric or treated paper


15 D.E. Filtration Filter powder MUST be used in conjunction with this type of filtration Add filter powder at the rate of 1.0 – 1.25 pounds per 10 s.f. of filter surface area.

16 Grid covered by cloth D.E. Powder on cloth Powder in place by water

17 Micron Removal Salt – 100 Hair – 70 Salt Rapid Rate – 50
Visibility – 40 High Rate – 25 50 40 Cartridge – 15 Red Blood Cell – 8 D.E. – 4 Bacteria – 1

18 Common Filtration Problems
Filter needs backwashing Cartridges need cleaning Sand bed “channeling” DE filter “bridging”

19 Backwashing a Sand Filter

20 Cleaning a Cartridge or DE Filter
Rinse off debris with hose or very light power washer Soak in de-greasing solution Rinse off and soak in acid solution if metal stains are present Replace in filter

21 Sand Bed Channeling Visually inspect sand bed Perform a “mud test”
Common problem is hard water and high saturation index

22 DE Filter “Bridging”

23 Water Chemistry Everyone checks for sanitizer / disinfectant
Commonly overlooked is water balance pH Total Alkalinity Calcium Hardness Total Dissolved Solids (water temperature)

24 Water Balance 9 24 33 50 66 76 91 97 8.5 8.0 7.8 7.5 7.2 7.0 6.5 6.0 % HOCl pH

25 Water Balance Langelier Saturation Index
Determination if water is corrosive or scale forming Takes into account 5 balance values, does not consider sanitizer

26 Water Balance Values are given for each of your test results, pH is entered directly into the equation. “Balanced” water is water that is closest to ZERO on the Langelier Scale. TDS Factors

27 Saturation Index pH as tested is substituted directly
Tf, Cf, Af and TDSf are determined by the Saturation Index Factor Chart


29 Water Chemistry There are also various “trouble shooter” chemicals to assist with cloudy water: Algaecides Sequestering Agents Clarifiers Borates

30 Chemical Controllers

31 Chemical Feeders Erosion feeder:

32 Chemical Feeders

33 Chemical Feeders Diaphram Pump

34 Motor nameplate info:

35 HEATERS Various types of heaters: Gas fired (natural and propane)
Electronic ignition and millivolt Oil Fired Electric Heat Pump Solar Geothermal

36 Heaters

37 Why do pools “pop”?

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