Presentation on theme: "PREHISTORIC POTTERY Woodland Culture Wisconsin c. 500 BC – 1650 AD By Mrs. Mary Barbara Summerfield."— Presentation transcript:
PREHISTORIC POTTERY Woodland Culture Wisconsin c. 500 BC – 1650 AD By Mrs. Mary Barbara Summerfield
BASIC LANGUAGE OF CLAY Clay: Fine grained material made of hydrated aluminum silicates, used in making pottery. Temper: Sand, crushed stone, ground mussel shell, crushed fired clay, or plant fibers used to reduce shrinkage, expansion and cracking during firing.
Language of Clay Slip: Clay mixed with water to make a type of glue used for attaching 2 pieces of clay…such as a handle to a pot. Pigment: Some stones such as hematite can be ground into powder, and mixed with slip for decoration.
Language of Clay Fire: Prehistoric pots may have been fired over an open air camp fire. - Low Fire = Temperature range of 400 – 800 F. - Bisque: Pots that have been fired once.
Language of Clay Burnish: Small, flat or round stones may have been used to polish clay. Wedge: Method of removing air bubbles from clay: -A paddle covered with woven fabric or cord may have been used to beat the clay. -A large stone would have supported the inside of the pot. -A pattern would remain on the pot.
Language of Clay PREHISTORIC BASIC TOOL KIT -Grinding Stone -Paddle with Fabric Cord -Mussel Shells -Sharp Sticks, Bone, Wood for Decoration
Characteristics of Woodland Pots Early Woodland -Plain/Geometric Rim Decoration Middle Woodland -Bag-shaped, Cord Marked Late Woodland -Cord-decorated
Pinch Pot Pinch Pot: Basic Pot Form -Start with Snowball Shape. -Pierce Center of Clay with Finger. -Develop into a Bowl Shape. -Tap botton of pot to create a “foot.”
Coil Pot Modern coil pots are started by using a slab, or flat base. Woodland Culture pots may have started as coil pots. After reaching the leather hard stage, coils (snake-like shapes) were wrapped around the pot, slowly adding to the height of the pot. Collared Rim: Thick rim of clay added to the top of a pot.
Processing Raw Clay 1. Harvest clay from an area rich in ancient riverbed clay. 2. Let clay dry thoroughly. 3.Pound or sift clay to remove heavy clods and grasses. 4.Soak clay for 2 – 4 days. 5.Knead clay to further reduce clods.
Adding Temper Prehistoric potters may have added as much as ½ pound temper for each pound of clay. Soak the temper. Knead it into the clay. The clay should start to become more plastic, or workable.
Color - Use supplies from your tool kit to decorate your pot, if desired. - Soak the hematite powder. - Mix it with some slip. - Use a brush or your fingers to “paint” a design on your pot.
Drying the Pot - A pot should dry for at least two weeks prior to firing. -Prehistoric pots were possibly covered and dried on the ground. As they started to dry, the coverings were removed. -Pots can also be placed in the sun for sun baking.