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Capacity Building for Ecological Sanitation in India Lic. Phil. Michael Kropac, seecon international (Switzerland) & Ecosan Services Foundation, Pune.

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Presentation on theme: "Capacity Building for Ecological Sanitation in India Lic. Phil. Michael Kropac, seecon international (Switzerland) & Ecosan Services Foundation, Pune."— Presentation transcript:

1 Capacity Building for Ecological Sanitation in India Lic. Phil. Michael Kropac, seecon international (Switzerland) & Ecosan Services Foundation, Pune

2 The Problem: No Sanitation…  650 Mio. Indians do not have access to adequate sanitation at all

3 The Problem: Pit Latrines, Soak Pits… On-site wastewater disposal systems: groundwater contamination possible (infiltration of wastewater) Source: (4)

4 The Problem: Conventional Waterborne Sanitation… …are “flush and forget” sanitation solutions, where human wastes are flushed away with huge amounts of scarce freshwater, polluting rivers and the drinking water of people living further downstream.

5 Limitations of Conventional Sanitation Unsatisfactory purification or uncontrolled discharge of more than 90 % of wastewater worldwide Severe water pollution, unbearable health risks Consumption of precious water for transport of waste High investment, energy, operating and maintenance costs Frequent neglect of poorer settlements Loss of valuable nutrients for agriculture Linear end-of-pipe technology Source: GTZ (9)

6 Agricultural reuse NUTRIENTS closing the loop between sanitation and agriculture FOOD Pathogen destruction Ecological Sanitation (ecosan) systems aim to:  Reduce the health risk related to sanitation, contaminated water and waste  Improve the quality of surface and groundwater  Improve soil fertility  Optimise the management of nutrients and water resources Ecological Sanitation as a sustainable alternative

7 Advantages of ecosan systems: turning waste into resources faeces (brownwater) anaerobic digestion, drying, composting, mixing with organic solid waste biogas, soil improvement constructed wetlands, gardening, wastewater ponds, biol. treatment, membrane- technology Greywater (showers, washing, etc.) irrigation, groundwater recharge or direct reuse urine (yellowwater) liquid or dry fertiliser hygienisation by storage or drying filtration, biol. treatment rainwater water supply, groundwater recharge treatment utilisation substances Separation of flow streams:

8 Ecosan Examples: Raika Primary School, Gujarat Urine Diverting Dehydration Toilet, Navsarjan Primary School, Gujarat

9 Ecosan Examples: Raika Primary School, Gujarat There are three holes: One for the faeces, one for urine and one for washing water. The faeces hole and the urine hole are covered to prevent flies from entering.

10 Ecosan Examples: Raika Primary School, Gujarat An improved Ecosan three hole Indian squatting platform made out of ceramic can now purchased at Shital Ceramics, Ahmedabad (Gujarat). Anal washing water Faeces Urine

11 Ecosan Examples: Raika Primary School, Gujarat Sawdust, or even better ash is used and put into the excreta hole after defecation to dry the faecal matter.

12 Ecosan Examples: Raika Primary School, Gujarat Sawdust, or even better ash is used and put into the excreta hole after defecation to dry the faecal matter.

13 Ecosan Examples: Raika Primary School, Gujarat There are no water taps to reduce water consumption, as the school does not have piped water. All water has to be brought in by tanker, which is very costly.

14 Ecosan Examples: Raika Primary School, Gujarat One toilet is in use, while the other is used for taking baths. The holes are covered so water does not percolate to the faecal matter.

15 Ecosan Examples: Raika Primary School, Gujarat Like that, the faecal matter has time to dry completely. During this process, most pathogens die. The faecal matter should be left untouched for at least 6 months.

16 Ecosan Examples: Raika Primary School, Gujarat After six months, the dried product can be used as a soil conditioner. Certain precautionary measures have to be taken during the application though.

17 Ecosan Examples: Raika Primary School, Gujarat The urine from the toilets (urine hole) and the men’s urinals is collected and stored for hygienisation.

18 Ecosan Examples: Raika Primary School, Gujarat Collection TankSchool Garden Vertical Flow Filter Greywater from the bathrooms, washbasins and laundry place are collected, filtered through a vertical flow filter and collected in a tank.

19 Ecosan Examples: Raika Primary School, Gujarat Only greywater is used to water the garden as freshwater is too expensive. Urine is added to the greywater as a fertiliser to enhance plant growth.

20 Ecosan Examples: Raika Primary School, Gujarat Through proper training, the students have become Ecosan experts and constructed a model of their toilet.

21 Ecosan Examples: Raika Primary School, Gujarat With this model, showing the exact stream flows of their toilet, the students even won the first prize in the Ahmedabad School Science Fair.

22 Ecosan Examples: Raika Primary School, Gujarat Urine Diversion Dehydration Toilets (UDD) systems as shown in this example are just one of many possible Ecosan technologies ranging from low cost sanitation solutions to high tech Ecosan systems using vacuum sewerage and membrane filter technology.

23 Ecosan Examples: ACTS Public Eco-Toilet, Bangalore  Public Toilet in Slum Area, Urine Diverting Toilets + Treatment Off-site

24 Ecosan Examples: ACTS Public Eco-Toilet, Bangalore  Public Toilet in Slum Area, Urine Diverting Toilets + Treatment Off-site

25 Ecosan Examples: ACTS Public Eco-Toilet, Bangalore Closing the loop: eco-friendly public toilet urine storage banana plantation biogas plant biogas for cooking sludge dryingcompost greywater to municipal sewer baskets from banana leaves local women transport of urine & brownwater using a vacuum suction truck

26 Ecosan High-Tech Solutions: Flintenbreite, Germany  Vacuum sewerage, anaerobic biogas system, constructed wetland for greywater

27 Ecosan Training Course at NRTC, Nashik Registration and further information at: www.ecosanservices.org Ecosan Services Foundation, “Vishwa Chandra”, 1002/42 Rajenda Nagar Pune – 411030, Maharashtra, INDIA Tel/Fax: 0091 (0)20 64 000 736, Mobile: 0091(0)98 230 111 06 or 0091(0)98 925 756 88 Email: ecosanindia@gmail.com


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