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Waste Treatment ENVR 421 Mark Sobsey. Household Human Wastes and Wastewaters.

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Presentation on theme: "Waste Treatment ENVR 421 Mark Sobsey. Household Human Wastes and Wastewaters."— Presentation transcript:

1 Waste Treatment ENVR 421 Mark Sobsey

2 Household Human Wastes and Wastewaters

3 Excreta and Graywater– Definitions and Properties Excreta: Human feces and urine Managed in different ways: Direct disposal on land or in water Direct use as fertilizer, soil conditioner and for aquaculture Pre-treatment prior to use Dilution with water to convey (sewage) for disposal or use Direct use of untreated (raw) sewage Treatment and discharge to land or water Treatment and reuse (agriculture, aquaculture, horticulture, industrial and civil use Graywater: Other wastewater from human activity Not directly from human fecs and urine Wastewater from washing, bathing, etc Contains human wastes and exudates

4 Managing Human Excreta - Options “Dry” Collection: –Open defecation –Collect in a container e.g., chamber pot –Discharge to the environment w/ or w/o Rx Latrines – several kinds –Treat or dispose of or both –Separate feces and urine; Then, treat/store, use, dispose to the environment

5 Managing Human Excreta - Options Semi-wet (or semi-dry) Use some water Pour-flush toilets and other low water use systems

6 Managing Human Excreta - Options Wet Systems –On-site Septic Systems –Other On-site systems Soak pits –Sewerage –Sewage treatment systems

7 Human Excreta – Resource or Risk? Nitrogen (N)4.5 Phosphorous (P)0.6 Potassium1.0 Organic matter (as BOD) 35 Human excreta as a potential resource Contains nutrients (N, P, K, and organic matter) Nutrients and organic matter are: Detrimental in water, esp. surface water Eutrophication, anoxia, fish kills Beneficial on land Fertilizer, soil conditioner, land stabilizer Widely used as a fertilizer and soil amendment in both developed and developing countries Potential for excreta misuse and environmental pollution is great without proper attention to management plans and human behavior considerations Annual Amounts/Person, Kg

8 Nutrient Content of Human Excreta Rich source of inorganic plant nutrients: N, P K and organic matter Daily human excretion: ~30 g of C (90 g of organic matter), ~ g N, ~ 2 g of P and 3 g of K. Most organic matter in feces most N and P (70-80 %) in urine. K equally distributed between urine and feces.

9 Organics kg COD/ (Person·year) Volume Liter / (Person·year) – l 500 l 50 l source: Otterpohl Nutrient content kg N,P,K / (Person·year) N P K Composition of Household Waste and Wastewater greywaterurine faeces

10 of no major (or less) hygienic concern/risk volumetrically the largest portion of wastewater contains almost no (or less) nutrients (simpler treatment) may contain spent washing powders etc. 3. greywater less hygienically critical (less risk) contains the largest proportion of nutrients available to plants may contain hormones or medical residues 2. urine hygienically critical (high risk) consists of organics, nutrients and trace elements improves soil quality and increase its water retention capacity 1. feces characteristicfraction Characteristics of Human Wastes

11 source: Drangert, 1998 Fertilizer Potential of Human Excreta

12 treatment utilisation substances faeces (brownwater) anaerobic digestion, drying, composting biogas, soil improvement constructed wetlands, gardening, wastewater ponds, biol. treatment, membrane- technology greywater (shower, washing, etc.) irrigation, groundwater- recharge or direct reuse urine (yellowwater) liquid or dry fertiliser hygienisation by storage or drying Options for Excreta and Greywater Utilization

13 Wastewater Impacts to Natural Receiving Waters Treated wastewater is often discharged to nearby natural waters BOD Chemicals (N,P) Synthetic Chemicals Antibiotics Microbial Pathogens Conventional Wastewater Treatment – Developed World

14 Water Use Cycle Water Source Water Treatment Plant Water Distribution System Water Use Wastewater Collection Wastewater Treatment Plant Discharge to Receiving Water

15 Pathogen Concentrations in Raw Sewage Highly variable and influenced by many factors: –Types and prevalence of enteric infections in the population –Geographic, seasonal, and climatological factors "Strength" and age of the sewage. –More water use, weaker sewage. "Guesstimated Worst-case" Pathogen Concentrations in U.S. Raw Sewage (No./L): –Enteric Viruses and Protozoan Cysts: ~ 10,000 of Each Group/Liter. –Enteric Bacteria: ~100,000/Liter.

16 Municipal Wastewater Collection (Chapel Hill, NC) Generally, a gravity flow system Includes pump stations and “Force Main” sewers

17 Conventional Sewage Treatment

18 Primary TreatmentSecondary TreatmentTertiary Treatment Anaerobic Digestion

19 Trickling Filter and Aeration Basin for Wastewater Treatment

20 Treating Separated Sewage Solids or Sludge

21 Waste Solids (Sludge) Treatment Treatment of the settled solids from 1 o and 2 o sewage treatment Biological “digestion” to biologically stabilize the sludge solids –Anaerobic digestion (anaerobic biodegradation) –Aerobic digestion (aerobic biodegradation) –Mesophilic digestion: ambient temp. to ~40 o C; 3-6 weeks –Thermophilic digestion: o C; 2-3 weeks Produce digested (biologically stabilized) sludge solids for further treatment and/or disposal Waste liquids from sludge treatment are recycled through the sewage treatment plant Waste gases from sludge treatment are released (or burned if from anaerobic digestion: methane, hydrogen, etc.)

22 “Processes to Further Reduce Pathogens” “PFRP”: Class A Sludge Class A sludge: – <1 virus per 4 grams dried sludge solids – <1 viable helminth ovum per 4 grams dried sludge solids – <3 Salmonella per 4 grams of dried sludge solids – <1,000 fecal coliforms per gram dry sludge solids thermal (high temperature) processes (incl. thermophilic digestion); hold sludge at 50 o C or more for specified times lime (alkaline) stabilization; raise pH 12 for 2 or more hours composting: additional aerobic treatment at elevated temperature Class A sludge or “biosolids” can be disposed by a variety of options (marketed and distributed as soil conditioner for use on non- edible plants)

23 Land Application of Treated Wastewater: Alternative Disposal Option

24 Facultative Oxidation (Waste Stabilization) Pond

25

26 On-site Septic Tank-Soil Absorption System

27 Modular Wastewater Treatment Systems electrochemical metals removal process, pH adjustment, coagulation, clarification, multi-media filtration, air stripping, activated carbon adsorption, final pH adjustment, sludge dewatering

28 Wastewater Reuse Wastewater is sometimes reused for beneficial, non-potable purposes in arid and other water-short regions Often use advanced or additional treatment processes, sometimes referred to as “reclamation” 1.Biological treatment in “polishing” ponds and constructed wetlands 2.Physical-chemical treatment processes as used for drinking water: – Coagulation-flocculation and sedimentation – Filtration: granular medium filters; membrane filters – Granular Activated Carbon – Disinfection

29 Primary Treatment or Primary Sedimentation Settle solids for 2 ‑ 3 hours in a static, unmixed tank or basin. ~75-90% of particles and 50-75% of organics settle out as “primary sludge” – enteric microbe levels in 1 o sludge are sometimes ~10X higher than in raw sewage enriched by solids accumulation Overall, little removal of many enteric microbes: – typically ~50% for viruses and bacteria – >50% for parasites, depending on their size

30 Enteric Microbe/Pathogen Reductions in Secondary or Biological Treatment Aerobic biological treatment: typically, activated sludge (AS) or trickling filtration (TF) Then, settle out the biological solids produced (2 o sludge) ~90-99% enteric microbe/pathogen reductions from the liquid phase Enteric microbe retention by the biologically active solids: accumulation in AS flocs or TF biofilms Biodegradation of enteric microbes by proteolytic enzymes and other degradative enzymes/chemicals Predation by treatment microbes/plankton (amoeba, ciliates, rotifers, etc. Aerobic microbes utililize carbon and other nutrients to form a healthy activated sludge AS biomass (floc) The biomass floc is allowed to settle out in the next reactor; some of the AS is recycled

31 Waste Solids (Sludge) Treatment Treatment of settled solids from 1 o and 2 o sewage treatment Biological “digestion” to biologically stabilize the sludge solids – Anaerobic digestion (anaerobic biodegradation) – Aerobic digestion (aerobic biodegradation) – Mesophilic digestion: ambient temp. to ~40 o C; 3-6 weeks – Thermophilic digestion: o C; 2-3 weeks Produce digested (biologically stabilized) sludge solids for further treatment and/or disposal (often by land application) – “Thickening” or “dewatering” – drying or “curing” Waste liquids from sludge treatment are recycled through the sewage treatment plant Waste gases from sludge treatment are released (or burned if from anaerobic digestion: methane, hydrogen, etc.)

32 Enteric Microbe/Pathogen Reductions by Sludge Treatment Processes Anaerobic and aerobic digestion processes – Moderate reductions (90-99%) by mesophilic processes – High reductions (>99%) by thermophilic processes Thermal processes – Reductions depend on temperature Greater reductions at higher temperatures Temperatures >55 o C usually produce appreciable pathogen reductions. Alkaline processes: lime or other alkaline material – Reductions depend on pH; greater reductions at higher pHs pH >11 produces extensive pathogen reductions Composting: high temperature, aerobic biological process – Reductions extensive (>99.99%) when temperatures high and waste uniformly exposed to high temperature Drying and curing – Variable and often only moderate pathogen reductions

33 “Processes to Further Reduce Pathogens” “PFRP”: Class A Sludge Class A sludge: <1 virus per 4 grams dried sludge solids <1 viable helminth ovum per 4 grams dried sludge solids <3 Salmonella per 4 grams of dried sludge solids <1,000 fecal coliforms per gram dry sludge solids PFRPs: Thermal (high temperature) processes (incl. thermophilic digestion); hold sludge at 50 o C or more for specified times lime (alkaline) stabilization; raise pH 12for 2 or more hours composting: additional aerobic treatment at elevated temperature Class A sludge or “biosolids” disposal by a variety of options or used as a soil conditioner – Class A biosolids can be marketed/distributed as soil conditioner for use on non-edible plants

34 Alternative Biological Treatment of Wastewater: Alternatives for Small and Rural Communities Lagoons, Ponds and Ditches – aerobic, anaerobic and facultative; for smaller communities and farms – enteric microbes are reduced by ~90-99% per pond multiple ponds in series increases microbe reductions Constructed Wetlands – aerobic systems containing biologically active, oxidizing microbes and emergent aquatic plants Lagoons and constructed wetlands are practical and economical sewage treatment alternatives when land is available at reasonable cost

35 Stabilization Ponds or Lagoons Aerobic and Facultative Ponds: Biologically Rx by complementary activity of algae and bacteria. Used for raw sewage as well as primary ‑ or secondary ‑ Rx’d. effluent. Bacteria and other heterotrophs convert organic matter to carbon dioxide, inorganic nutrients, water and microbial biomass. Algae use CO 2 and inorganic nutrients, primarily N and P, in photosynthesis to produce oxygen and algal biomass. Many different pond designs have been used to treat sewage: facultative ponds: upper, aerobic zone and a lower anaerobic zone. Aerobic heterotrophics and algae proliferate in the upper zone. Biomass from upper zone settles into the anaerobic, bottom zone. Bottom solids digested by anaerobic bacteria.

36 Enteric Microbe/Pathogen Reductions in Stabilization Ponds BOD and enteric microbe/pathogen reductions of 90%, esp. in warm, sunny climates. Even greater enteric microbe /pathogen reductions by using two or more ponds in series Better BOD and enteric microbe/pathogen reductions if detention (residence) times are sufficiently long (several weeks to months) Enteric microbes reduced by 90% in single ponds and by multiples of 90% for ponds in series. Microbe removal may be quite variable depending upon pond design, operating conditions and climate. – Reduction efficiency lower in colder weather and shorter retention times

37 Constructed Wetlands and Enteric Microbe Reductions Surface flow (SF) wetlands reduce enteric microbes by ~90% Subsurface flow (SSF) wetlands reduce enteric microbes by ~99% Greater reduction in SSF may be due to greater biological activity in wetland bed media (porous gravel) and longer retention times Multiple wetlands in series incrementally increase microbial reductions, with 90-99% reduction per wetland cell.

38 Septic Tank-Soil Absorption Systems for On-Site Sewage Rx Used where there are no sewers and community sewage treatment facilities: ex.: rural homes Septic tank: solids settle and are digested Septic tank effluent (STE) is similar to primary sewage effluent Distribute STE to soil via a sub-surface, porous pipe in a trench Absorption System: Distribution lines and drainfield Septic tank effluent flows through perforated pipes located 2-3 feet below the land surface in a trenches filled with gravel, preferably in the unsaturated (vadose) zone. – Effluent discharges from perforated pipes into trench gravel and then into unsaturated soil, where it is biologically treated aerobically. Enteric microbes are removed and retained by the soil and biodegraded along with STE organic matter; extensive enteric microbe reductions are possible But, viruses and other pathogens can migrate through the soil and reach ground water if the soil is too porous (sand) and the water table is high

39 Log 10 Reduction of Pathogens by Wastewater Rx Processes

40

41 REMOVAL OF ENTERIC BACTERIA BY SEWAGE TREATMENT PROCESSES ORGANISM PROCESS % REMOVAL Fecal indicators Primary sed. 0 ‑ 60% E. coli Primary sed. 32 and 50% Fecal indicators Trickling filt. 20 ‑ 80% Fecal indicators Activated sludge 40 ‑ 95% Fecal indicators Stab. ponds, 1 mo. high temp. Salmonellae Primary sed. 79%, 6 ‑ 7 hrs. Salmonellae " 73%, 6 ‑ 7 hrs. Salmenellae Trickling filt. 92% Salmonellae Activated sludge ca. 99%

42 Entamoeba histolytica Reduction by Sewage Treatment ORGANISM PROCESS % REMOVAL E. histolytica Primary Sed. 50% E. histolytica Primary Sed., 2 hr. 64% E. histolytica Primary sed., 1 hr. 27% E. histolytica Primary sed. + Trickl. Filt.25% E. histolytica " 74% E. histolytica " 91% E. histolytica Primary sed. + Act. Sludge83% E. histolytica Oxidation ditch + Sedimentation 91% E. histolytica Stabilization ponds + sedimentation 100% E. histolytica " 100, 94, 87 E. histolytica " 100 E. histolytica Aerated lagoon (no settling) 84%

43 Microbial Reductions by Wastewater Treatment

44 Disinfection of Wastewater Intended to reduce microbes in 1 o or 2 o treated effluent – Typically chlorination – Alternatives: UV radiation, ozone and chlorine dioxide Good enteric bacterial reductions: typically, % – Meet fecal coliform limits for effluent dicharge Often 200-1,000 per 100 ml geometric mean as permitted discharge limit Less effective for viruses and parasites: typically, 90-99% reduction Toxicity of chlorine and its by ‑ products to aquatic life now limits wastewater chlorination; may have to: – Dechlorinate – Use an alternative, less toxic chemical disinfectant or – Use an alternative treatment process to reduce enteric microbes granular medium (e.g., sand) filtration membrane filtration

45 When Wastewater Disinfection is Recommended or Required Discharge to surface waters: – near water supply intakes – used for primary contact recreation – used for shellfish harvesting – used for irrigation of crops and greenspace – other direct and indirect reuse and reclamation purposes Discharge to ground waters waters: – used as a water supply source – used for irrigation of crops and greenspace – other direct and indirect reuse and reclamation purposes

46 Wastewater Reuse Wastewater is sometimes reused for beneficial, non-potable purposes in arid and other water-short regions. Often uses advanced or additional treatment processes, sometimes referred to as “reclamation” Biological treatment in “polishing” ponds and constructed wetlands Physical-chemical treatment processes as used for drinking water: – Coagulation-flocculation and sedimentation – Filtration: granular medium filters; membrane filters – Granular Activated Carbon adsorption – Disinfection

47 Indicator Microbe Levels in Raw and Treated Municipal Sewage: Sewage Treatment Efficacy F. col.E. coliEnt.C. p.F+ phg. Number/100 ml Raw Treated (geom. mean values of 24 biweekly samples)

48 Estimated Pathogen Reductions by Sewage Treatment Processes: An Example Sewage Treatment Rx:% ReductionTotal % Reduction Primary settling o biological treatment Granular medium filtration Disinfection


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