Presentation on theme: "1 Evaluation Methodologies in a Cleaner Production Plant Presenter:Ms. Julia Brown Manager, Process Development Scientific Research Council."— Presentation transcript:
1 Evaluation Methodologies in a Cleaner Production Plant Presenter:Ms. Julia Brown Manager, Process Development Scientific Research Council
2 Contents Cleaner production–PRISM methodology Planning and organization Pre-evaluation Plant evaluation Feasibility Studies Implementation Generation of options of Cleaner product- ion
3 Evaluation for Cleaner Production It´s a systematic and planned procedure done with the objective of identifying the raw material, water and energy wastes sources. Facilitates the corporative efforts to obtain uninterrupted environmental improvement in the plant operations.
4 Evaluation Tools Information and evaluation compilation. Records Worksheets, Procedures Raw material, water, energy consumption indicators, residues generation Generation options of Cleaner production National and international bibliographic information Manage techniques of: storm of ideas, team work
5 Success Elements Support and participation of Higher Management Evaluation equipment formed by staff of different departments Methodology applied continually and in an ordered way.
6 Cleaner production methodology Cleaner production interest Planning and organization Pre-evaluation Evaluation Feasibility Studies Implementation and continuity Evaluation
7 Project Methodology Resources earnings Phase 1: Preparation Phase 2: Pre-evaluation Phase 3.B: Feasibility studies Phase 3.A: Evaluation Phase 3.C: Implementation Phase 4: Continuation Cleaner production necessity recognition Contaminant minor charges System changes New priority areas
8 Phase 1: Planning and Organization Recognized Necessity of Cleaner Production Activity 1: Obtain commitment of Management Activity 2: Organize project equipment from Cleaner production project Activity 3: Define goals of Cleaner Production in plant Activity 4: Identify barrier and solutions Established Evaluation Organization
9 Activity 1: Obtain the commitment of the Administration Emphasize economical benefits! (e.g. reduction in the costs because of the efficient use of water, energy and residue reduction) Illustrate environmental benefits! (e.g. emission reduction, residual water contaminant charge and toxic substances) Other external benefits! (e.g. improvement in the public image of the enterprise and comply with the standing environmental laws) Promote responsible inquiries !
10 Activity 2: Organize the Team of Cleaner production (1) Team has to be able of identify solution opportunities, develop them and implement them. (Characteristics: knowledge, creativity and authority) Size and integration of the team has to be according to the enterprise organization (5 a 8) Team has to coordinate the Cleaner product- ion activities and the responsibility over the established goals success
11 Activity 2: Organize the Team of Cleaner production (2) Suggested members of the team Management representation. Production Manager Environmental area Motivated Supervisor Motivated Operator or technician External Supervisor or Advisor
12 Activity 2: Organize the Team of Cleaner production (3) To instruct the project team To assure the comprehension of the Cleaner production concept between the members of the team. To reinforce the systematic evaluation importance and records of each process stage that may give an environmental or economical impact. To enable the project team. Create conditions for success (time, information access, etc..). Assure the implementation of the options without any cost and low price. To create incentives (recognitions).
13 Activity 3: Establish Cleaner Pro- duction Goals in the Plant Considerations Goals have to be appropriate and measurable. Have to give significant environmental and/or economical improvement. Short term goals have to be realistic. Long term goals have to be a threat. Indicators Internal productivity standards. Water consumption, energy, generation of residues. Innovative technology. Environmental legislation.
14 Activity 4: Identify Barriers (1) Concepts and attitudes between employees and the Management. Organizational structure of the enterprise. Actual situation of the equipment technology in the plant. Available and accessible information. Financial functioning of the enterprise. Absence of communication between the different areas of the plant.
15 Activity 4: Identify Barriers (2) Diffuse the cleaner production concept between the enterprise staff to facilitate: To obtain fluid information. Employees participation in the generation of options and its evaluation. Effective implementation of the feasible options. Continuity in the cleaner production activities.
16 Phase 2: Pre-evaluation Planning and organization Evaluation of the organization Activity 5: Flow diagram development Activity 6: Input and Output of materials evaluation Activity 7: Define the focus of the diagnostic. Evaluation
17 Activity 5: Diagram flow develop- ment Identify all the unit operations or process stages. Check Input and Output. Relate process stages and material´s flow (incomes, forms water consumption, energy, amount of solid wastes, liquids, gaseous emissions, etc..)
18 Process Flow Example First soak by aspersion Caustic soda bath Caustic soda bath Soak by immersion Final soak by aspersion Water Caustic soda Detergent Vapor Water Vapor Soak water containing: - Caustic soda residues - detergent residues - organic and inorganic matter Labels + caustic solution absorbed by labels Residual bath Mud (organic or inorganic matter) Condensates (discharged) Returned Bottles Washed bottles Water Mud (organic or inorganic matter) Residual bath Condensates (discharged) Water Caustic soda Detergent Vapor
19 Diagram Flow Example Mills Batey Evaporation Clarification Cristalization Centrifugation Drying Water Sugar cane Sanitary disposal Bagasse Fat and cooling water Chemicals Chemical excess Chemicals Water vapor Displacing water First froth on cane juice when bolied Water vapor Molasses Sugar to Refinery Standard Sugar
20 Activity 6: Evaluation of Entrances and Exits of Materials (1) In each stage of the process: enlist inputand output (raw materials, energetic and wastes) Assign costs to input and output by raw material, water consumption, energy, residues manage, etc. Check operation and maintenance practices. Materials selection practices. Used criteria for the selection of the products and incomes. Number of products used for each stage of the process.
21 Activity 6: Evaluation of Entrances Exits of Materials (2) Inventory manage practices: inventory movements of first input, first output, package conditions and storage. Internal costs: Manage and recollection of residues, value of the incomes. Treatment facilities operation, raw material losses and intermedium products. External costs: Discharge fares, taxes, license costs, etc..
22 Activity 6: Evaluation of Entrances Exits of Materials (3) Operation and maintenance practices: Obvious fails in the process control in the work procedures. Spills and leaks. Obvious lacking in equipment maintenance. Begin to improve order and cleanliness: Obtain the support of the administration to solve obvious problems. Communicate with the workers involved.
23 Example: evaluation of Inputand Output Input Output Annual costs $ Annual Quantities (kg, m 3 ) Raw Materials Unit operation Secondary Products Annual costs $ Annual Quantities (kg, m 3 Bottle Washing Water Soda Detergent Vapor Soak water Caustic soda Detergent residues Organic and inorganic matter Labels Condensates Process: bottles washing
24 Activity 7: Select the Cleaner production Diagnosis Focus (1) Economical considerations Economical losses related to residues Elevated energetic consumption, tap water treated. Technical considerations Expected improvement potential. Possibility to apply cleaner production standards in the operative activities. Environmental considerations Volume and composition of the residues. Actual situation in the environmental management program.
25 Cleaner Production Example First soak By aspersion Caustic soda bath 60°C, 2.0% NaOH Caustic soda bath 70°C, 2.5% NaOH Soak by immersion 50°C Final soak By aspersion 30°C Reposition soft water Caustic soda Detergent Vapor Soft water(15°C) Vapor Soak water(45ºC) containing: - caustic soda residues - detergent residues - organic and inorganic matter Labels + caustic solution absorbed by labels Residual bath (discharge of 8 m³each 3 months) Mud (organic and inorganic matter) Condensates Returned bottles Washed bottles Soak water Mud (organic and inorganic matter) Residual bath (discharge of 8 m³each 3 months) Baño residual (descarga de 8 m 3 cada 3 meses) Condensates Reposition soft water Caustic soda Detergent Vapor Soak water
26 Activity 7: Select the Cleaner production Diagnosis Focus (2) Process unitEconomical priority Environmen- tal priority Technical potential Other considerations Residues generation Fuel change Water recovering 3 12 Dangerous waste EIA - SETENA 23 1 Other fuels costs 32 1 Treatment costs Operative report 3. High 2. Medium 1. Low
27 Phase 3: Evaluation Pre - Evaluation Selected evaluation focus Activity 8: Make material balance Activity 9: Evaluate the causes of the residues generation, energetic inefficiency or excessive water consumption. Activity 10: Generate Cleaner production options. Activity 11: Select Cleaner production options. Cleaner Production complete options package Feasibily studies
28 Activity 8: Make Material Balance (1) Process Input Raw materials, water, energy and others records Process Output Products,sub products, Residues and emissions records. Make Material Balance 1.- To collect information 2.- Make preliminary balance 3.- Evaluate and accurate the balance
29 Activity 8: Make Material Balance (2) Divide procedures in process stages. Information sources: Measures in place over normal conditions of line service operations (e.g., time, temperature, pressure, flow, chemicals, water consumption, etc.) Raw materials purchase and products sales records. Production records
30 Activity 8: Make Material Balance (3) Quality evaluation of data Reliability Precision Representatively
31 Activity 9: Evaluation of Inefficiency Causes (1) Process Technology Equipment design and its plant distribution Product specifications Process Raw materials discharges of raw material intermedium products and end products Materials losses Process capacity Type and Quality of Raw materials Equipment, operation and maintenance
32 To implement obvious options: Raw material and energy management Production technologies and plant design Actual situation of the maintenance operation Optimum process conditions control Potential water reuse and recycling Abilities and employees motivation Activity 9: Evaluation of Inefficiency Causes (2)
33 Activity 10: Generation of Cleaner production options PROCEDURE Production of usable sub products Improvement in the process control “Clean house” practices Raw materials substitution Recovering & materials reuse in plant Technological change Equipment modification Products formulation modification
34 Activity 10: Cleaner production generation options (1) Information sources Storm of ideas developed in the working team. Ask for ideas out of the working team. Check options of cleaner pro- duction examples. Check technology.
35 Activity 11: Select Cleaner production options Organize options for operation unit. Evaluate obvious mutual interferences. Implement measures obviously possible. Eliminate those not feasible.
37 Activity 12: Preliminary evaluation Options are based on persons or in teams? Are they simple or complex? Are they cheap or expensive?
38 Activity 13: Technical Evaluation (1) Verification List Team availability and reliability. Effect over the product quality and its productivity. Maintenance and services requirements. Operators and supervisors abilities.
39 Input Raw materials Energy, Water Hand work Consumption Output Solid Residues Residual Waters Gaseous emissions Before Implementation After Implementation Activity 13: Technical Evaluation (2)
40 Activity 14: Economical evaluation (1) Evaluate the economical impact of the cleaner production recommendation Investment Costs and operation benefits Realize economical calculations, (e.g., Investment recovering period) Investment Investment recovering = ------------------- Earnings Rapid method for small projects. It´s an approximate indicator for high risk projects.
41 Activity 14: Economical evaluation (2) Time of investment recovering: 1 year (simple project) < 3-4 years (medium cost project) > 4 years (high cost project)
42 Activity 16: Selection of the Cleaner production measurements Combine results of technical, economical and environmental evaluations
43 Phase 5: Implementation and Continuation Feasibility Feasible options list Activity 17: Prepare a Cleaner production plan. Activity 18: Implement Cleaner production options. Activity 19: Progress advisement. Activity 20: Cleaner production sustainability. Cleaner production pursuit
44 Activity 17: Cleaner production Plan Option Responsible Person Implantation End date Key factors
45 Activity 18: To Implant Cleaner Production Options Details Preparation Detailed technical specifications. Appropriate planning to reduce the installation time. Financing. Installation. Appropriate control of installation. Preparation for the beginning of operation.
46 Activity 19: Cleaner production Progress program Advisement. Selection of measurement method: Changes in the amount of residues. Changes in the resources consumption (water and energy). Profit change. Productivity change. Labor conditions changes.
47 Activity 20: Cleaner Production Sustainability Quantify wastes generation, water and energy consumption. Incorporate Cleaner production in the technical development, training. To assure that employees may get involved. Establish a preventive maintenance program. Verify the environmental impact of new equipments. Cleaner production in Research and Development. Spread the results.
48 Cleaner production Internal RecyclingReduction in source Process Change Product Change Entrances Substitution Technological Modification Good Practices Cleaner production strategies
49 Prism Methodology Enterprise data and its processes. Flow of materials, wastes and emissions. Create work groups. Generate Cleaner production options. Technical evaluation. Economical evaluation. Environmental evaluation. Organizational evaluation. Selection of options. Fund obtention. Equipment installation. Advisement and evaluation of results. Project adaptation. Planning of new projects Obtain commitment from Management. Establish the evaluation organization. Propose general objectives. Overtake barriers. Begin a preliminary study. Recognize the necessity of increasing competitivity with Cleaner Production Planning and Organization Plant Evaluation Feasibility Study Implementation