Presentation on theme: "Evaluation Methodologies in a Cleaner Production Plant"— Presentation transcript:
1 Evaluation Methodologies in a Cleaner Production Plant Presenter: Ms. Julia BrownManager,Process DevelopmentScientific Research Council
2 Contents Cleaner production–PRISM methodology Planning and organizationPre-evaluationPlant evaluationFeasibility StudiesImplementationGeneration of options of Cleaner product-ion
3 Evaluation for Cleaner Production It´s a systematic and planned procedure done with the objective of identifying the raw material, water and energy wastes sources.Facilitates the corporative efforts to obtain uninterrupted environmental improvement in the plant operations.
4 Evaluation Tools Information and evaluation compilation. Records Worksheets,ProceduresRaw material, water, energy consumption indicators, residues generationGeneration options of Cleaner productionNational and international bibliographic informationManage techniques of: storm of ideas, team work
5 Success Elements Support and participation of Higher Management Evaluation equipment formed by staff of different departmentsMethodology applied continually and in an ordered way.
6 Planning and organization Implementation and continuity Cleaner production methodologyCleaner production interestPlanning and organizationPre-evaluationEvaluationFeasibility StudiesImplementation and continuityEvaluation
8 Recognized Necessity of Cleaner Production Phase 1:Planning and OrganizationRecognized Necessity of Cleaner ProductionActivity 1: Obtain commitment of ManagementActivity 2: Organize project equipment from Cleaner production projectActivity 3: Define goals of Cleaner Production in plantActivity 4: Identify barrier and solutionsEstablished Evaluation Organization
9 Activity 1: Obtain the commitment of the Administration Emphasize economical benefits! (e.g. reduction in the costs because of the efficient use of water, energy and residue reduction)Illustrate environmental benefits! (e.g. emission reduction, residual water contaminant charge and toxic substances)Other external benefits! (e.g. improvement in the public image of the enterprise and comply with the standing environmental laws)Promote responsible inquiries !
10 Activity 2: Organize the Team of Cleaner production (1) Team has to be able of identify solution opportunities, develop them and implement them. (Characteristics: knowledge, creativity and authority)Size and integration of the team has to be according to the enterprise organization (5 a 8)Team has to coordinate the Cleaner product-ion activities and the responsibility over the established goals success
11 Activity 2: Organize the Team of Cleaner production (2) Suggested members of the teamManagement representation.Production ManagerEnvironmental areaMotivated SupervisorMotivated Operator or technicianExternal Supervisor or Advisor
12 Activity 2: Organize the Team of Cleaner production (3) To instruct the project teamTo assure the comprehension of the Cleaner production concept between the members of the team.To reinforce the systematic evaluation importance and records of each process stage that may give an environmental or economical impact. To enable the project team.Create conditions for success (time, information access, etc..).Assure the implementation of the options without any cost and low price.To create incentives (recognitions).
13 Activity 3: Establish Cleaner Pro-duction Goals in the Plant ConsiderationsGoals have to be appropriate and measurable.Have to give significant environmental and/or economical improvement.Short term goals have to be realistic.Long term goals have to be a threat.IndicatorsInternal productivity standards.Water consumption, energy, generation of residues.Innovative technology.Environmental legislation.
14 Activity 4: Identify Barriers (1) Concepts and attitudes between employees and the Management.Organizational structure of the enterprise.Actual situation of the equipment technology in the plant.Available and accessible information.Financial functioning of the enterprise.Absence of communication between the different areas of the plant.
15 Activity 4: Identify Barriers (2) Diffuse the cleaner production concept between the enterprise staff to facilitate:To obtain fluid information.Employees participation in the generation of options and its evaluation.Effective implementation of the feasible options.Continuity in the cleaner production activities.
16 Planning and organization Phase 2: Pre-evaluationPlanning and organizationEvaluation of the organizationActivity 5: Flow diagram developmentActivity 6: Input and Output of materials evaluationActivity 7: Define the focus of the diagnostic.Evaluation
17 Activity 5: Diagram flow develop-ment Identify all the unit operations or process stages.Check Input and Output.Relate process stages and material´s flow (incomes, forms water consumption, energy, amount of solid wastes, liquids, gaseous emissions, etc..)
18 Process Flow Example Returned Bottles Washed bottles First soak by aspersionCaustic sodabathSoak by immersionFinal soakWaterDetergentVaporSoak water containing:- Caustic soda residues- detergent residues- organic and inorganic matterLabels + caustic solution absorbed bylabelsResidual bathMud (organic or inorganic matter)Condensates (discharged)Returned BottlesWashed bottles
19 Diagram Flow Example Batey Mills Clarification Evaporation CristalizationCentrifugationDryingWaterSugar caneSanitary disposalBagasseFat and cooling waterChemicalsChemical excessWater vaporDisplacing waterFirst froth on canejuice when boliedMolassesSugar to RefineryStandard Sugar
20 Activity 6: Evaluation of Entrances and Exits of Materials (1) In each stage of the process: enlist inputand output (raw materials, energetic and wastes)Assign costs to input and output by raw material, water consumption, energy, residues manage, etc.Check operation and maintenance practices.Materials selection practices.Used criteria for the selection of the products and incomes.Number of products used for each stage of the process.
21 Activity 6: Evaluation of Entrances Exits of Materials (2) Inventory manage practices: inventory movements of first input, first output, package conditions and storage.Internal costs: Manage and recollection of residues, value of the incomes. Treatment facilities operation, raw material losses and intermedium products.External costs: Discharge fares, taxes, license costs, etc..
22 Activity 6: Evaluation of Entrances Exits of Materials (3) Operation and maintenance practices:Obvious fails in the process control in the work procedures.Spills and leaks.Obvious lacking in equipment maintenance.Begin to improve order and cleanliness:Obtain the support of the administration to solve obvious problems.Communicate with the workers involved.
24 Activity 7: Select the Cleaner production Diagnosis Focus (1) Economical considerationsEconomical losses related to residuesElevated energetic consumption, tap water treated.Technical considerationsExpected improvement potential.Possibility to apply cleaner production standards in the operative activities.Environmental considerationsVolume and composition of the residues.Actual situation in the environmental management program.
25 Cleaner Production Example First soakBy aspersionCaustic sodabath60°C, 2.0% NaOH70°C, 2.5% NaOHSoak byimmersion50°CFinal soak30°CReposition soft waterDetergentVaporSoft water(15°C)Soak water(45ºC) containing:- caustic soda residues- detergent residues- organic and inorganic matterLabels + caustic solution absorbed by labelsResidual bath (discharge of 8 m³each 3 months)Mud (organic and inorganic matter)CondensatesReturned bottlesWashed bottlesSoak waterResidual bath (discharge of 8 m³each 3 months) Baño residual (descarga de 8 m3 cada 3 meses)
26 Activity 7: Select the Cleaner production Diagnosis Focus (2) Process unitEconomicalpriorityEnvironmen-tal priorityTechnicalpotentialOtherconsiderationsResiduesgeneration12Dangerous wasteEIA - SETENA3Fuel change231Other fuels costsWaterrecovering321Treatment costsOperative report3. High Medium Low
27 Cleaner Production complete options package Phase 3: EvaluationPre - EvaluationSelected evaluation focusActivity 8: Make material balanceActivity 9: Evaluate the causes of the residuesgeneration, energetic inefficiency or excessivewater consumption.Activity 10: Generate Cleaner production options.Activity 11: Select Cleaner production options.Cleaner Production complete options packageFeasibily studies
28 Make Material Balance (1) Activity 8:Make Material Balance (1)Process InputRaw materials,water, energy andothers recordsProcess OutputProducts,sub products,Residues and emissionsrecords.Make Material Balance1.- To collect information2.- Make preliminary balance3.- Evaluate and accurate the balance
29 Make Material Balance (2) Activity 8:Make Material Balance (2)Divide procedures in process stages.Information sources:Measures in place over normal conditions of line service operations (e.g., time, temperature, pressure, flow, chemicals, water consumption, etc.)Raw materials purchase and products sales records.Production records
30 Make Material Balance (3) Activity 8:Make Material Balance (3)Quality evaluation of dataReliabilityPrecisionRepresentatively
31 Activity 9: Evaluation of Inefficiency Causes (1) Equipmentdesign andits plantdistributionProcessTechnologyProductspecificationsRaw materialsdischarges of rawmaterial intermediumproducts and endproductsProcessType andQuality ofRaw materialsEquipment,operation andmaintenanceProcesscapacityMaterialslosses
32 To implement obvious options: Activity 9: Evaluation of Inefficiency Causes (2)To implement obvious options:Raw material and energy managementProduction technologies and plant designActual situation of the maintenance operationOptimum process conditions controlPotential water reuse and recyclingAbilities and employees motivation
33 Production of usable sub products Activity 10:Generation of Cleaner production optionsPROCEDUREProduction of usable sub productsImprovementin the processcontrol“Clean house”practicesRawmaterialssubstitutionRecovering& materials reuse in plantTechnologicalchangeEquipment modificationProductsformulationmodification
34 Cleaner production generation options (1) Activity 10:Cleaner production generation options (1)Information sourcesStorm of ideas developed in the working team.Ask for ideas out of the working team.Check options of cleaner pro-duction examples.Check technology.
35 Select Cleaner production options Activity 11:Select Cleaner production optionsOrganize options for operation unit.Evaluate obvious mutual interferences.Implement measures obviously possible.Eliminate those not feasible.
36 Implementation and Continuity Phase 4: Feasibility studiesActivity 12: Preliminary evaluation.Activity 13: Technical evaluation.Activity 14: Economical evaluation.Activity 15: Environmental evaluation.Activity 16: Feasible selection of options.EvaluationImplementation and ContinuityComplete options packFeasible options list
37 Preliminary evaluation Activity 12:Preliminary evaluationOptions are based on persons or in teams?Are they simple or complex?Are they cheap or expensive?
38 Technical Evaluation (1) Activity 13:Technical Evaluation (1)Verification ListTeam availability and reliability.Effect over the product quality and its productivity.Maintenance and services requirements.Operators and supervisors abilities.
40 Investment Costs and operation benefits Activity 14:Economical evaluation (1)Evaluate the economical impact of the cleaner production recommendationInvestment Costs and operation benefitsRealize economical calculations, (e.g., Investment recovering period)Investment Investmentrecovering =EarningsRapid method for small projects.It´s an approximate indicator for high risk projects.
41 Economical evaluation (2) Activity 14:Economical evaluation (2)Time of investment recovering:1 year (simple project)< 3-4 years (medium cost project)> 4 years (high cost project)
42 Combine results of technical, economical and environmental evaluations Activity 16:Selection of the Cleaner production measurementsCombine results of technical, economical and environmental evaluations
43 Phase 5: Implementation and Continuation FeasibilityFeasible options listActivity 17: Prepare a Cleaner production plan.Activity 18: Implement Cleaner production options.Activity 19: Progress advisement.Activity 20: Cleaner production sustainability.Cleaner production pursuit
44 Activity 17: Cleaner production Plan OptionResponsiblePersonImplantationEnd dateKeyfactors
45 To Implant Cleaner Production Options Activity 18:To Implant Cleaner Production OptionsDetails PreparationDetailed technical specifications.Appropriate planning to reduce the installation time.Financing.Installation.Appropriate control of installation.Preparation for the beginning of operation.
46 Activity 19: Cleaner production Progress program Advisement. Selection of measurement method:Changes in the amount of residues.Changes in the resources consumption (water and energy).Profit change.Productivity change.Labor conditions changes.
47 Cleaner Production Sustainability Activity 20:Cleaner Production SustainabilityQuantify wastes generation, water and energy consumption.Incorporate Cleaner production in the technical development, training.To assure that employees may get involved.Establish a preventive maintenance program.Verify the environmental impact of new equipments.Cleaner production in Research and Development.Spread the results.
48 Cleaner production strategies Internal RecyclingReduction in sourceProcess ChangeProduct ChangeEntrances SubstitutionTechnological ModificationGood Practices
49 Prism Methodology Recognize the necessity of increasing competitivity withCleaner ProductionObtain commitment from Management.Establish the evaluation organization.Propose general objectives.Overtake barriers.Begin a preliminary study.Planning andOrganizationFund obtention.Equipment installation.Advisement and evaluation of results.Project adaptation.Planning of newprojectsEnterprise data and its processes.Flow of materials,wastes and emissions.Create work groups.Generate Cleaner production options.ImplementationPlantEvaluationFeasibilityStudyTechnical evaluation.Economical evaluation.Environmental evaluation.Organizational evaluation.Selection of options.