FLOATING GLASS:) TIYA THIMSUWAN WANNISA KETNAK d
OVERVIEW. Background Float glass is manufactured using a melt process whereby recycled glass, silica sand, lime, potash and soda are melted in a furnace and floated onto a bed of molten tin. The molten mass solidifies slowly while flowing over the bed of molten tin, after which it is annealed to remove stresses induced during the cooling process. Annealing also allows the glass to reach a more stable state resulting in a higher density and higher refractive index.Typical thicknesses range from 2mm to 19mm for commercial applications.
STRUCTURE Composition and Structure of NiS Inclusions in Float Glass, and their Impact on the Heat Soak Process NiS inclusions having caused breakage in the Heat Soak Process (HST) or on a building were analyzed by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDX) in a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Some were found to be homogeneous, solely composed of NiS, and others to contain 2 major phases, the one composed of NiS, the other of Ni9S8. The influence of this difference s on spontaneous failure and comportment in HS process is actually unknown.
STRUCTURE Different iron (Fe) concentrations were also found in the NiS bulk, evidently correlated with the glasses' iron content, and ranging from very low values (<0.2 at.-% in clear glass) up to 2 at.-% in green glass. In the gussets and pores between the NiS bulk crystals, sulfide crystals containing up to 48% iron were found.
STRUCTURE he corresponding bulk nickel sulfides were produced synthetically, and their kinetic properties measured by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). An important difference in activation energy was found between iron-free and iron- containing species. With increasing number of DSC loops, the difference between the substances vanishes more or less.
PROPERTIES *High degree of light transmission Ability to be produced in a range of colours *Ability to be produced in a range of opacities *Good chemical inertness *Attacked by hydrofluoric (HF) acid
Tinted float glasses are made by adding colouring agents during the melt process. Common colours include grey, green, bronze and blue. While tinting may provide aesthetic alternatives to clear glass, tinted glasses also provide materials with different properties including heat and light transmission (and/or reflectance), ultraviolet transmission and insulation properties. ADDITIONAL Tinted Float Glass
ADDITIONAL Reflective Glass Reflective glasses are also available for applications where light transmittance is an important design factor. These glasses have a metallic coating applied during manufacture
APPLICATIONS Building industry Float glass is used for smaller windows in domestic housing. Larger windows are made from toughened glasses. Glass is used for windows for aesthetic and functional reasons, allowing the occupants to see out and at the same time allowing light in.
APPLICATIONS Commercial glazing *Float glass is becoming more and more popular in commercial applications as it allows structures to be constructed that give the impression of being outside with the benefits of being inside protected from the elements (with the exception of the sun). *Factors such as light and heat transmittance can play a big role in glass selection as they will influence the amount of heating and cooling that will be required inside a building according to the differences in seasons and climates.
APPLICATIONS Displays Based on its transparency, hardness and ease of cleaning, glass is often used for display cases in retail outlets and countertops. However, many of these applications are being superseded by toughened glass due to its added strength.