We think you have liked this presentation. If you wish to download it, please recommend it to your friends in any social system. Share buttons are a little bit lower. Thank you!
Presentation is loading. Please wait.
Published byKobe Trowbridge
Modified about 1 year ago
Specialty Meats © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. Chapter 11
© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. Offal/Specialty Meats/Organ Meats The word offal comes from the Old English “off” and “fall” referring to the pieces that fall from the animal carcass during butchering Other names: offal cuts, specialty meats, organ meats, variety meats, bad meats, and cheap meats
© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. Liver If liver is going to be cooked by any dry method of cooking, great care must be taken to ensure that it is not overcooked If overcooked, it will harden, toughen, and change flavor considerably The thinner the cut, the faster it will need to be cooked Inaccuracy in removal of the silver skin can cause curling of the liver during cooking resulting in poor presentation and toughness
© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. Beef Liver Quality Factors –Should have a bright color with a moist but not slimy surface and fresh smell –Is darker and has a stronger taste than all other livers –Is generally toughest of all livers –Can weight 8 to 12 pounds
© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. Calf’s Liver Should be deep rose to reddish brown in color Should not have any dark red or purple tinges Should not have any blood spots or bruising Should weight on average 7 pounds
© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. Lamb Liver Has sharp and distinctive odor Very light reddish brown in color Color should be lively and have a bright bloom; should not show any sign of dullness Resembles calf’s liver, and is sometimes mistakenly sold as calf’s liver Generally very tender
© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. Lamb Liver Weighs on average about 2 pounds Dries very quickly if overcooked
© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. Pork Liver Has a strong odor and flavor Color should be lively and have a light reddish brown tinge Weighs on average 3 pounds Is primarily used in the production of pâtes and sausages, although it can be sautéed and fried
© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. Cleaning Liver Wash well and pat dry Remove any tough membranes, tubes, and sinews Take great care not to damage the structure during removal of veins Skin the liver by removing tough silver skin that surrounds it Slice as desired
© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. Chicken and Duck Liver Quality Points –Should be firm and well shaped –Should not have any evidence of the gallbladder remaining—easily recognized by green staining –Should be a rich dark reddish brown with a bright bloom –Should be intact, not mashed or damaged in any way
© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. Foie Gras Romans (1 st century BC) realized that goose liver was greatly improved when the geese were fed fresh figs Ashkenazi Jews of central Europe are credited with disseminating the method of cultivation of foie gras Escoffier created step-by-step instructions on preparing the liver for foie gras as we know it today Literal translation from the French is “fat liver”
© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. Foie Gras Quality Points –Color should be light yellow to amber –The lighter the liver, the less fat is contained in the liver –Should be firm and resilient to touch –Should give slightly under thumb pressure, and the thumb mark should remain visible –The higher the grade, the fewer blemishes should be present
© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. Foie Gras Quality Points –Grade A livers must weigh at least 1½ pounds –Grade B livers should weigh between ¾ and 1½ pounds –Grade C livers were less than 1 pound –The size of the liver will determine how much vein is contained within
© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. Foie Gras Quality Points –Finest livers should be relatively free of any bruises or blemishes –Surface blood spots, or small red pin dots, indicate a breakdown of capillaries or an excessive number of veins that will affect the flavor and texture of the finished dish
© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. Foie Gras Quality Points –Generally sold in individual vacuum-sealed packages and should remain in packages until ready for use –Will keep for 2 weeks in vacuum seal in the refrigerator –Best when used within 1 week of purchase –When removed from vacuum package, use immediately, or wrap tightly in plastic and use within 48 hours
© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. Foie Gras Quality Points –Freezing and defrosting destroy cell walls within the foie gras, allowing moisture to evaporate –Residual blood left in veins can be removed by soaking in milk for 2 hours (may not be necessary because of modern processing) –Goose liver is slightly larger than duck liver
© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. Foie Gras Preparation Hot Preparation –Using a slightly chilled liver, separate the lobes by gently inserting your hands between the lobes, and with one lobe in each hand, pull them apart –Use a sharp knife to cut the connective membranes and nerves between the lobes –Trim away any visible membranes, veins, and green bile
© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. Foie Gras Preparation Hot Preparation –Cut lobes into medallions of differing sizes depending on the method of cooking –Always use a sharp knife dipped in hot water and slice the liver on a diagonal
© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. Foie Gras Preparation Cold Preparation –Remove the Vein: Bring the liver to room temperature by removing the foie gras from the vacuumed package, rinsing well, and immersing it in a water bath of 95ºF (35ºC). After soaking for one hour, the liver will be pliable enough to clean Separate the two lobes and, with the larger lobe lying upside down, find the area where the connecting membranes and veins have been cut
© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. Foie Gras Preparation Cold Preparation –Remove the Vein: Gently tug the membrane to reveal the location of the central vein of the lobe; as you pull, use your other hand to gently peel back the flesh of the liver, tracing the location of the vein Clean the foie gras without breaking it into pieces; the central vein reaches roughly two thirds down the middle of the large lobe before it forks into two separate directions, forming an upside-down “Y” Remove it gently, following it at all times; remove all membranes at the same time as the veins
© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. Foie Gras Preparation Cold Preparation –Remove the Vein: You should have a somewhat flattened but intact lobe Do the same for the other lobe Discard the membranes and veins; using the cleaned lobes, continue with the recipe
© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. Sweetbreads Most delicately flavored of the offal meats Most sought after for their subtle flavor and wonderful texture They are the small thymus glands from the neck and heart of young steers, calves, and lamb The round lobe is found near the heart The longer elongated lobe is from the throat in the neck of the animal
© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. Sweetbreads Quality Factors –Should be light, bright, and rosy in color –The larger size is more desirable –Should not have any blood spots or bruising visible –Outer membrane is removed either before or after cooking
© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. Cooking Sweetbreads Soak in cold water for about 6 to 8 hours, changing the water often Blanch in simmering water with a little lemon juice or vinegar added for about 2 minutes to help firm their texture and prepare them for trimming Chill immediately and pat dry
© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. Cooking Sweetbreads Carefully trim off all tubes, sinews, and any fat, pressing very lightly between 2 boards to even their size The sweetbreads can now be larded or studded as desired They are braised brown or white, sautéed, or fried
© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. Tongue Quality Points –There should be no throat bones or cartilage attached –Wash well in cold water to remove any blood Cooking –Tongues should be soaked in acidulated water for an hour or in plain water overnight if the tongues are to be salted –Tongue has a thick outer layer of skin and requires a long, slow, moist cooking method to make it tender enough to eat
© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. Tongue Cooking –Cook by poaching, and when it is fully cooked, quickly plunge into cold water; the skin is then split and peeled off like a glove –Before serving, cut away any roots, small bones, or gristle that might still be present at the neck end –Tongues can be pickled and pressed into shapes before cutting, but this must be done after skinning and before they are completely cooled
© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. Heart Quality Points –Hearts should have a fresh smell and red color not brown or gray –Store loosely wrapped in the refrigerator for no more than 3 days Cooking –All hearts should be thoroughly washed before cooking, and the membrane inside that divides the two heart chambers should be removed, particularly if the heart is to be stuffed
© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. Heart Cooking –Open the heart without separating halves –Trim off excess fat and tubes –Remove clots of blood and sprinkle with olive oil and lemon juice –Marinate for 1 to 2 hours and season with salt and pepper –Stuff with pork forcemeat or savory stuffing
© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. Heart Cooking –Wrap in larding bacon (cut paper-thin) or in pig’s caul –Tie well with string and cook gently by roasting or braising –Alternately, the heart may be sewn closed for cooking
© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. Kidneys Rules for purchase: –Should not appear limp or have a strong smell –Are highly perishable and should be prepared promptly after they are purchased –Should have a bright appearance and should not appear shriveled in any way –Should be firm, pink, or pale red rather than purple, and should not have a uric acid smell
© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. Lamb Kidneys Preparation for cooking: –Slit on bulging side and open without separating the two halves –Remove the skin, trim tubes, skewer to keep kidney open –They can be divided into 2 halves lengthwise; skin and trim
© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. Pluck Rules for preparation: –The lungs should be beaten vigorously to expel air, and the spleen should be skinned –They should be soaked in cold water with salt for 24 hours to remove the blood –Blanch spleen and lungs in salt water for 10 minutes; Slice it thinly and fry in clarified butter –Alternately, they should be lightly poached for 1½ hours until tender and used for stuffing and sausage
© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. Brains Quality Points –Choose brains that are clean, light pink color, and free of blood clots and stains –Brains should be firm, plump, and pinkish white –Chill well and use the same day as purchased
© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. Brains Preparation for Cooking –Before precooking, soak the brains in cold water and remove the outer membrane –Brains should be soaked in cold water until all the blood is leached away; the arteries and fibers should then be removed –Precooking is, in fact, a prerequisite to most methods of preparation and enhances the keeping quality of the brains
© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. Brains Preparation for Cooking –Simmer them for about 20 minutes in salted water, adding 1 or 2 tablespoons of lemon juice or vinegar, and other seasonings if you desire –Another method is to simmer them in milk; this step will firm their mushy consistency for use in other recipes –The brains are rested and cooled before the next method of cooking takes place –They may be sautéed or cut in small pieces and deep fried in batter or other coatings, fried, creamed, or scrambled with eggs
© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. Blood Considerations for Cooking –Fresh blood straight from the animal is at great risk for spoiling unless dealt with immediately –A little lemon juice or vinegar should be added to stop the blood from clotting during refrigeration; 1 tablespoon (15 mL) of lemon juice per 2 quarts (1.9 L) of blood is the recommended ratio –Store the fresh blood for no more than 2 days
© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. Head Quality Points –Check the neck for obvious signs of bruising and damaged flesh –Ensure that the windpipes have been removed –Clean the ears, nose, and mouth areas of anything that looks unclean –Wash the whole head thoroughly
© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. Head Preparation for Cooking –Make an incision down the center of the head from the top of the forehead to the nose of the animal –Run your knife along the meat, keeping the flesh attached to the skin but following the contour of the skull until you have completely boned the head –Take the greatest care to keep your knife facing the bone at all times in order to remove as much flesh as possible –Follow the head from top to bottom around the forehead, then around the eyes along the snout and then along the jaw
© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. Head Preparation for Cooking –Lay the skin out flesh side up; clean around the ears, nose, and tongue end, removing any cartilage and sinews; remove all large fat pockets that are visible, cleaning down to the flesh –Remove the tongue and cut into strips about 3 inches by ½ inch (7.5 cm by 1.25 cm) and reserve –Now remove the skin by using a long firm ham knife and cutting under the flesh against the skin as if skinning a large salmon fillet
© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. Head Preparation for Cooking –Lay the flesh into the best rectangle you can make from it in between 2 sheets of strong plastic wrap and lightly beat the head into a somewhat even-looking sheet –Roll this up with the tongue inside, seasoning well as you go –Tie in muslin into a galantine shape and secure with butcher’s twine –Poach for 3 hours, very gently, until fully cooked –Cool until you can handle it, and then rewrap and tie tightly to create its final shape in fresh muslin, allowing it to chill in the cooking liquid
© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. Tripe Cooking –Soak in acidulated water overnight and wash well the next day in plenty of running cold water –Cut into strips about 4 inches (10 cm) long and 1 inch (2.5 cm) wide –Braise or poach in rich court bouillon or good beef broth until tender –Add to an appropriate sauce and serve
© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. Tails Quality Points –Look for tails with an even distribution of meat and fat –They should have an even coating of very white fat –They should be skinned and trimmed of excess fat They can be bought cut into chunks through cartilage between segments of bone They can also be boned without damaging skin; season with salt and pepper and stuff; Roll and tie with cloth and string, like a galantine, for cooking
© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. Caul Fat Pig’s caul fat is the lining of a pig’s stomach The excess fat is removed and can be used as lard The remaining membrane is used as a protective wrapping for any meat item that needs to have a “natural plastic wrap” to hold it together during cooking Soak it in salt water and then drain well before using
© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. Caul Fat It can be very delicate, so handle with care It will mostly disappear when cooked, except when it has been wrapped repeatedly around a food item
FACS Standards 8.5.1, 8.5.2, 8.5.3, 8.5.4, 8.5.5, 8.5.6, Kowtaluk, Helen and Orphanos Kopan, Alice. Food For Today. McGraw Hill-Glencoe
Offal VRQ2 Theory Unit 709 UPK 709. What is offal ? The name given to the edible parts, taken from the inside of the carcase (Animal or Poultry) High.
Understanding Veal. The Definition of Veal Meat of young, usually male, calves that are by-products of the dairy industry Calves asre usually slaughtered.
Beef and Poultry. You need 5-7 oz. from the meat, poultry, fish, dry bean, egg and nut group daily. Protein is the main nutrient found in meat.
Meat Selection and Storage Section Types of Meat Beef From cattle over one year old. Has a hearty flavor. The cuts have bright red flesh. The fat.
Chapter 6 Cooked Sausages. Topics Covered Basic Components of Cooked Sausages Additional Meats Used in Cooked Sausages Metric Conversions and U.S. Equivalents.
Market Forms and Preparing Fruits Culinary Arts. Fresh Fruit Never wash fruits before storing them, wait until you are ready to use them Never wash fruits.
Revere Chapter 15 Vegetables Part 3 The Preparation of Food.
Meats and Offal Chapter 13. Objectives Define the term meat, and identify the four basic animals from which meat is derived Explain the importance of.
M EAT S ELECTION AND S TORAGE FACS Standards 8.5.1, 8.5.2, 8.5.3, 8.5.4, 8.5.5, 8.5.6, Kowtaluk, Helen and Orphanos Kopan, Alice. Food For Today.
Cooking Methods ProStart Year 1, Chapter 5. Heat Transfer Conduction – transfer of heat from one item to another. Surface to surface like a pot or in.
Meat. Types of Meat Beef – Meat of a cow or steer over one year old. Veal – Meat of a cow 3 to 14 weeks old. Calf – Meat of a cow 14 weeks to one year.
Cool Coconut Rice ‘n’ Peas with Funky Plantain. Ingredients:2 x 15ml spoons olive oil, 1 onion, 1 red pepper, a few drops of Tabasco (hot pepper sauce),
POULTRY, MEAT and SEAFOOD. TYPES OF POULTRY “Anything with a feather” such as: Chickens Turkeys Duck Goose Birds (quail, dove, etc.)
Bell Ringer 1.What are the three methods of heat transfer? 2.Name one example of each heat transfer method that applies to cooking.
Plating Techniques 1.Using Sauces 2.Plate Painting 3.Variety of Shapes 4.Variety of Temperatures 5.Complimenting Flavors 6.Garnishing 7.Height 8.Crunch.
The Poultry Unit. Goal 1 List tips for buying poultry Goal 2 Describe how to properly store poultry to maintain its quality Goal 3 Describe the.
Unit 251 Poultry. Poultry is the collective term applied to domestic birds reared for human consumption and includes duck, goose, turkey and guinea fowl.
1 Fruits and Vegetables SMSD Mrs. Rohret Fruits and Vegetables.
- Parts of the Cow - Bovine Vocabulary - Love Me Tender - The Carnivore Kitchen - Beyond The Cow (Milk and Cheese)
Meat, Poultry, Seafood, Legumes. Beef Meat is the edible portion of mammals. Beef comes from mature cattle over 12 months of age. After animal carcasses.
Fish. There are several categories of fish, but the breakdown begins with: Finfish Shellfish Categories of Fish.
Chapter 37 Foods for Today. Any bird raised for food Turkey, chicken, duck, goose.
Chicken Notes. Nutritional Values Protein excellent source Helps build and repair tissues Important for concentration excellent source Helps build and.
The Incredible Edible Egg!. EGG TRIVIA A hen requires 24 to 26 hours to produce an egg. Thirty minutes later, she starts all over again. Eggs age more.
Cooking Techniques Dry Cooking Moist Cooking Combination Cooking.
1. Bulbs- Garlic and onions Flowers Artichokes, broccoli, cauliflower 2.
The Incredible Edible Egg. An average hen lays eggs a year. To produce 1 egg it takes hours. 30 minutes after the egg is laid, she starts.
LITHUANIAN TRADITIONAL FOODS. BLACK RYE BREAD 3 k coarsely ground rye flour 1 l water starter salt STARTER: 1/2 k rye flour 50 g fresh yeast 1 l warm.
Chapter 34 Textbook Page 533. I. Meat- edible muscle of animals, typically cattle, sheep and pigs. A.Contains three main parts- 1. Muscle- protein- rich.
-400gr of mock angulas. -5 cloves garlic. -1 chili pepper. -Olive oil.
Basic Techniques of Food Preparation ( 6.14) Breads and Cereals Breads and Cereals 1. Quick Breads: biscuits, muffins, pancakes, coffee cakes Sift dry.
Cake Types, Baking, and Cooling The Basics. Preparing the Cake High-fat or shortened cakes High-fat or shortened cakes Creaming Method Creaming Method.
Section 19.5 Preparing Meat, Poultry, Fish, and Shellfish.
Cooking technique, temperature and cooking time affect nutritive value, texture, colour, aroma, and flavour. Different methods bring out different.
Pies. Uses for Pastry ______ – is the dough used to make piecrusts. Can use pastries – Main dishes such as ______ and quiche – Small dish and fill with.
I can explain the nutritional value of venison I can explain venison processing I can explain jerky preparation.
COOKING METHODS Review. For TOUGH CUTS COOKING METHODS Braising Stewing Sous Vide CUTS OF MEAT Short Ribs Corned Beef Pork Butt Lamb Shank Osso Bucco.
Drying. Fruits Fruits contain: B complex vitamins, vitamin C, carbohydrates, iron, phosphorous, and calcium. Some vitamin C may be lost through the drying.
Famous Chinese Recipes By: Emily Beran and Jimmy Butch.
Czech food and drink. Czech cuisine is not exactly a synonym for healthy cooking, everybody will probably find at least a couple of meals "to die for".
Meat © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved. Chapter 9.
Meatandeducation.com 2011 Meat types and cuts. meatandeducation.com 2011 Module focus Most people buy their meat in the form of cuts, joints or mince.
Meat, Fish & Poultry: PROTEIN-BASED FOODS Foods I: Fundamentals.
Unit 28: Salad Dressings and Salads Featured from morning to night, from appetizer to main course or dessert, there is a salad for every palate.
Finfish: have fins and backbones. – They can be lean or fatty. Lean fish have very little fat b/c their flesh is white (aka white fish). Fatty fish.
Summary of Coating Terms. Bread, dredge, and coat All are used to cover a food, often before frying, either to keep it from drying out or to give it a.
Pork Jowl Cuts. Pork : Jowl : Smoked Pork Jowl Cookery Method –Moist Square-shaped cut from neck (jowl) area. Cured and smoked.
Meat. How Much Should I Eat? 2-3 servings, total of 5-7 oz. 2-3 servings, total of 5-7 oz. –About the size of the palm of your hand Good source for iron,
Meat Basics Creative Cooking II. Nutritional Component of Meat Water = 75% Protein = 20 % Fat= 5% Shrinkage: Occurs when meat loses water as it cooks.
© 2017 SlidePlayer.com Inc. All rights reserved.