3 Learning Objective Define heat and cold application Local Effects of HeatDisadvantage of Heat ApplicationLocal effect of coldSystematic effect of heat and cold applicationContraindications to the use of heat or coldTemperature for hot and cold applicationsDifferent methods of Applying heat and cold
4 Heat and Cold Application Heat and cold are applied to the body for local and systemic effects.
5 Local Effects of HeatVasodilatation and increases blood flow to the affected areaBringing (oxygen, nutrients, antibodies, and leukocytes)Promote soft tissue healingUsed for client with (joint stiffness, low back pain)Sedative effectIncrease inflammation
6 Disadvantage of Heat Application Increase capillary permeabilityExtra cellular fluid and substance as plasma to pass through the capillary wallsedema
7 Local effect of coldLowers the temperature of the skin and underlying tissueVasoconstrictionDecrease capillary permeabilitySlow bacterial growthDecrease inflammationLocal anesthetic effect
8 Systematic effect of heat Heat applied on large body areaExcessive peripheral vasodilatationDrop in blood pressureFainting attack
9 Systematic Effect of Cold Excessive cold applicationsVasoconstrictionsIncrease of blood pressureProlonged cold Shivering
10 Contraindications to the use of heat The first 24 hours after traumatic injury (heat increase bleeding and swelling).Active hemorrhage (heat causes vasodilatation and increase bleeding ).Non inflammatory edema (heat increases capillary permeability and edema).Skin disorder (heat can burn or cause further damage to the skin).Localized malignant tumor (heat increase cell growth and accelerate metastases ).
11 Contraindications to the use of cold Open wound (cold can increase tissue damage by decreasing blood flow to an open wound ).Impaired circulation (cold can further impair nourishment of the tissue).Allergy and hypersensitive to cold application.Some people react by decrease Bp.Inflammatory response (swelling, joint pain ).
12 Temperature for hot and cold applications DescriptionTemperatureApplicationVery coldBelow 15CIce bagCold15-18 CCold packsCool18 – 27 CCold compressesTepid27 – 37 CAlcohol sponge bathWarm37 – 40 CWarm bathHot40 – 46 CHot soak, hot compressesVery HotAbove 46 CHot water bag for adult
13 Methods of Applying heat and cold Hot water bag (bottle)More Common source of dry heatIn expensiveImproper use leads to burningHot and cold packsCommercially prepared hot and cold packs provide heat or cold for a designated timeElectrical PadsProvide constant heatAre light weightSome have water proof covers to placed over a moist dressingIce Bags,Filled either with ice chips .
14 CompressesCan be either warm or coldAre moist gauze dressing applied to a woundSoakRefers to immersing a body part in a solutionSterile technique is generally indicated for open woundSitz Bath or hip bathUsed to soak a client’s pelvic areaThe client’s sit on the chair and immersed in the solutionCooling Sponge BathPromoting heat loss throughconductionCompanied by antipyretic medication