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Mark Clampin (GSFC) John Stansberry (STScI)

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Presentation on theme: "Mark Clampin (GSFC) John Stansberry (STScI)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Mark Clampin (GSFC) John Stansberry (STScI)
JWST Operations Mark Clampin (GSFC) John Stansberry (STScI)

2 JWST Observatory Status

3 Image Quality 150 nm @ NIRCam focal plane: 2 mm diffraction limit
Note: performance specified to short wavelength cameras WFE budget contributors include: OTE, ISIM, Instrument (including stability), jitter & pointing Sampling is an issue (see talks tomorrow) NIRCam pixel size (l < 2.3 mm): 32 mas/pixel NIRSpec pixel size (l > 2.4 mm): 100 mas/pixel l/D (0.7 mm) ~ 22 mas MIRI pixel size (imaging/prism): 110 mas/pixel l/D (5.0 mm) ~ 0.16 mas Contrubuting factors Image stability

4 Image Quality: MIrrors

5 Diffraction Limited: Strehl > 0.8 (WFE ≤ 150 nm)
Image Quality Diffraction Limited: Strehl > 0.8 (WFE ≤ 150 nm) F115W F200W F444W F070W Log Scale Linear Scale

6 OTE Thermal Stability: I
Primary concern for transit spectroscopy/imaging is the stability of the image from observation to observation and over time JWST will be a very stable telescope Function of thermal timescales for observatory elements Req.: Sets Wavefront Sensing & Control (WFSC) cadence of 14 days Most important for short wavelength instruments

7 OTE Thermal Stability: II
Note that requirement is determined against the worst case Slew from cold-soak to hot-soak with 14 day hold Facilitates relatively simple computing case for complex models

8 OTE Thermal Stability: III
For a real-world science operations Design Reference Missions contain a distribution of pointing durations and sun-angles e.g. typical pointings ~103 secs WFE drift driven by the observations in long duration pointing tail Typical WFE drift over 14 days will be < requirement Studies by Gersh-Range et al. and JWST thermal team Further options exist for WFE drift mitigation via scheduling Phase curves on same targets over several days will cause most significant WFE drift

9 Wavefront Sensing & Control
Wavefront Sensing and Control Measured every two days: Issue for phase curve observations? Fine-tuned every 14 days Cadence for WFS&C will be reviewed during commissioning Observatory Project Science is planning thermal-slew test during commissioning Slew over pre-determined angle Monitor drift in image quality over several days Correlates thermal models and thermal measurements Feeds into Cycle 1 Science

10 Image Motion Current Image Motion Requirement:
OBS‑ The RMS of the difference between the "offset- adjusted image position" and its mean (for an observation period of up to 10,000 seconds) shall be less than or equal to the values shown below (per axis) over any 15 second interval of fine guidance. Science Instrument IM Allocation (mas) NIRCam 6.6 NIRSpec 6.7 MIRI 7.4 NIRISS 6.8

11 Reaction Wheels JWST has 6 reaction wheels
Reaction wheels control momentum in order to orient telescope Solar radiation pressure on sunshield is a major factor for momentum management of JWST Using push-through algorithm for zero-crossing events Vendor: Rockwell Collins Deutschland GBMH (Formerly Teldix): Heritage 11 yrs - Chandra, 8 yrs - EOS Aqua and 6 yrs - Aura 12+ years on Life test unit (MSFC)

12 Spatial Scanning Options
Moving Target Requirement: When commanded, the ACS shall compensate for the apparent motion of a moving target which exhibits an angular velocity between 0 and 30 mas/sec with respect to a guide star that remains within a single Fine Guidance Sensor field of view Upper limit to rate ~ 60 mas/sec Sine or repeating pattern would be required across FOV HST-like scan could be accomplished at higher rates using slews employed for small angle maneuvers Not operating under fine guide: jitter ~ 16 mas FSW change for slew patterns would have to be added, together with ground support

13 Calibration Options Is it possible to calibrate the structure of detector pixels on-orbit to facilitate jitter decorrelation for science instruments Added option for Fine Steering Mirror (FSM) to step a star around a detector pixel under fine guidance Known as FSM-offsets Small-angle maneuvers use reaction wheels and are limited in precision FSM offsets have precision of few mas and allow an image to be stepped around a single pixel to map out pixel response functions Efficient small angle dithering Especially useful for MIRI where ground-calibration is not feasible

14 JWST Exposure Nomenclature


16 Data Rate and Storage JWST Solid state recorder (SSR) daily limit
57.5 GB/day for science data (NOTE: on-board compression doesn’t work…) Ensures downlink can keep up w/ data production H2RG data rates (continuous readout, i.e. upper limit) Full-frame/stripe-mode readout (4 parallel outputs per detector) : 0.8 MB/sec/detector Subarray-mode readout (single output per detector) 0.4 MB/sec/detector NIRCam is the only real potential problem 2 detectors full-frame : 138 GB/day (2.4x allocation) 2 detectors subarray : 35 GB/day (w/in allocation for observations < 1.7 days) Detector resets reduce these rates somewhat

17 Max Uninterrupted Exposure Duration
Four basic limits High-gain antenna re-pointing Nominally requires visits to be < 9000 seconds duration Nominally occurs during visit breaks PROPOSAL: Allow transits to observe through HGA re- pointings Momentum unloads (cadence could be ~doubled by momentum biasing) Worst-case: 5 day cadence Off-Nominal: 10 day cadence Nominal: 25 day cadence

18 Max Uninterrupted Exposure Duration
Four basic limits (continued) Max # integrations = 2^16 = (ASIC hardware limit) Max exposure durations for integrations with 2 frames per ramp: Full-frame: hrs (32.2 sec/integration) 64 x 64 subarray: 2.7 hrs (148 msec/integration) 2048 x 64 stripe: hrs (1.02 sec/integration) 2048 x 64 subarray: hrs (4.02 sec/integration) Wavefront Sensing (2-day cadence) WFS visits can presumably be shifted +/- a day 7 WFS visits (nominal) between control activities

19 High-gain Antenna Proposal
HGA re-pointing is the most severe constraint on exposure length HGA re-pointing causes small, short disturbances < 70 mas pointing disturbance < 1 min disturbance duration FGS will remain in fine-guide through the disturbance There is some flexibility in specifying timing of HGA re-points HGA Ops Proposal for Exoplanet Transits: Allow exoplanet observations to continue through HGA re-points Small effects on photometry may result, but probably better than stopping and restarting exposures (data gaps; response drifts) This mitigates data-volume issues because data can be downlinked ~as it is acquired

20 Event-driven Operations
Fixed-time constraints are allowed ‘PHASE’ constraint allows any of several transits for a given system to be observed at a specified orbital phase (scheduling flexibility) Start of exposures uncertain to 5 minutes Timeline Scenarios (TBR – checking w/ Wayne Kinzel) Failed visit(s) prior to transit Over-long visit(s) prior to transit

21 Observation Planning Requirements for APT implementation are under discussion Coronagraphy ‘super-template’ concept one possibility APT holder with special qualities Allows organization of, and application of special constraints to, groups of normal observing templates Could flag observations as, e.g.: Allowed to proceed through HGA re-points Allowed to use 2-detector mode (NIRCam) Could group observations of a target, e.g.: Single folder for multi-band, multi-instrument observations of one target Multiple events to increase SNR

22 Exposure Time Calculator
No dedicated exoplanet ETC is in the works Normal SNR predictions on host star can be used to estimate detection limits for transit signatures There is currently no additional knowledge available to enable a more precise ETC implementation

23 What time is it? Time (UTC) flows from ground  JWST S/C  ISIM  Science Data S/C clock stable to < 2 sec / 40 hours (14 ppm) S/C clock corrected every contact (~12 hr nominal contact interval) Accuracy requirement < 0.5 sec Correction is applied gradually, not as a jump ISIM tags data w/ time last pixel in a group gets read out Data groups get ‘stacked’ before delivery to SSR Only the time tag for the last group in a stack is retained on the SSR FITSWRITER reconstructs time for individual groups Frame-time algorithms from instrument teams Precision probably ≤ 30 msec

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