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Fall Vegetable Gardening

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Presentation on theme: "Fall Vegetable Gardening"— Presentation transcript:

1 Fall Vegetable Gardening
Calvert County Master Gardeners You can edit your own title, sub title, author and . Note: extra slides after the end of the presentation on putting your garden to bed and storing/preserving the harvest.

2 College of Agriculture and Natural Resources

3 Grow Your Own Food We Can Show You How Our Vision:
1 Million Maryland food gardeners producing their own affordable, healthy food. Register your garden – large or small - on the GIEI Website – address on a later slide.

4 What do we mean by fall gardening?
Planting crops for harvest before frost and after frost Planting crops that can overwinter for spring harvesting Protected gardening in a cold frame, greenhouse or under row covers Planting cover crops to add organic matter and nitrogen, and minimize weeds in spring We will see some samples of crops that can withstand light frost, heavier frost, and crops that over-winter.

5 Select Crops All are cold hardy & some are quick maturing
Cole crops: broccoli, cabbage, collards, cauliflower, kohlrabi, Brussels sprouts Greens: leaf lettuce, spinach, arugula, Asian greens, mustard, cilantro Root crops: Rutabagas, beets, carrots, turnips, parsnips

6 Half-hardy Survive light frost
Beets Cauliflower Chard Chinese Cabbage Endive Kohlrabi Lettuce Mustard Peas Rutabagas We will give you a list of vegetables with suggestions on when to plant and tips for a long harvest. Give example of one or two crops from list I typed.

7 Hardy Survive heavy frost
Broccoli Broccoli Raab Brussels Sprouts Cabbage Collards Kale Radishes Spinach Turnips Some of the crops can be grown from seed sown right into the garden, while some will do better if started indoors and planted as seedlings. We will give you suggestions about this later.

8 Overwintering Crops Arugula Broccoli Raab Chicories Garlic Kale Leeks
Multiplier Onions Spinach Over-wintering crops will emerge, then go dormant over the winter and then begin re-growing in spring – some through early July. A lot depends on location in the state and in the garden. More about these later. Leeks


10 Fall Days & Temperatures
Cool nights slow plant growth. Vegetables take longer to mature. Days grow shorter, the sun’s angle is lower in the sky and light is less intense; less sunlight energy for plants. These environmental conditions add sugar to cole crops. Lettuce and spinach will not bolt. Bolting – running to seed. Flowering prematurely, usually due to unsuitable climate conditions. Spinach and lettuce, broccoli, are prone to this. Cole crops: broccoli, cabbage, collards, cauliflower, kohlrabi, brussell sprouts.

11 Seed Starting Date Short-Day Factor
First frost date for your area Days to maturity, germination, transplant Add 14 days for Short Day Factor Formula: Days to maturity + Days to germinate + Days to transplant + SDF=Days to plant before frost Handout: How to figure last planting date. Use Kohlrabi as an example.

12 Sample Calculation For Sowing Spinach Seeds
Days to germination: to 10 Days to maturity: Short Day Factor (SDF): __14__ 56 to59 I can sow seeds between 56 and 59 days before the first frost – about Oct for Huntingtown. Counting back from Oct the dates to sow are about Aug. 22 to Sept. 1. Germination and days to maturity – based on seed packet. First frost date based on chart you will receive – at 67% for dates for U. Marlboro and LaPlata.

13 Preparing the Site Remove waste from previous crop.
If ground is dry, give it a thorough soaking. Work compost into top few inches of soil. Add leafgro or compost—one or two inches.

14 Transplants Start transplants or purchase for: Broccoli
Brussels sprouts Cabbage Cauliflower Collards Transplant 6 to 8 weeks before the first frost. Timeline can be extended by using purchased transplants. Transplants are available from local garden centers by the last week in August…Or…grow your own!

15 Weather Considerations
High heat and humidity in August Start cool weather crops in a protected spot Indoors under lights, under shade cloth or in a shady part of the garden

16 Putting out Transplants
Seedlings need gradual exposure to direct sunlight. Will benefit from light shading for the first few days. Keep them soaked. Seedlings go out when 3 inches and growing strong. Plant on cloudy day. Deep water dry soil. Drought stress can stop the growth curve (especially slow growing beets and carrots or temperamental cauliflower). Can use old screens. Need moisture. Insect pressures may decrease when evenings cool. May want to keep row covers longer to protect from larger critters.

17 Row Cover Protection Throw a bed sheet over row cover for a few days to provide shade. Row covers deter insects and larger critters. Row covers can extend season. Don’t forget to keep soil moist. After plants are strong enough to resist insect attacks, row covers can be removed. Can mulch with grass clippings, well rotted leaves, or straw over wet layers of newspaper.

18 Top: mixed Asian greens in October
Bottom: Drip irrigation used to water fall greens 18

19 Seeds to Sow Direct seed: Beets Broccoli raab Chinese cabbage Cilantro
Collards Endive Kale Kohlrabi Lettuce Mustard greens Spinach Turnips Several plantings of leaf lettuce and radishes can be made since they are ready to harvest abour days after planting. Spinach may be overwintered if it has reached a good size by the first frost

20 Getting Seeds to Germinate and Grow
Soil is hot and dry. Clay soil forms hard crust. Seeds need cooler temperatures and moisture to germinate and grow. Slow growing beets and carrots will suffer setbacks if soil is dry.

21 Seeds Become Dormant at High Temperatures.
The maximum soil temperature for germinating lettuce and spinach is 70 degrees F. The optimum temperature for germinating peas is 70. For many other vegetables it is 80 degrees F.

22 Sowing Seeds Water soil before sowing.
Sow in the late afternoon so germination will begin overnight.

23 Direct Sow Plant seeds slightly deeper. Depth may be 1 ½ to 2 times deeper than spring. Can cover seeds in furrow with potting soil or vermiculite. Keep soil cool and moist. Cover seeded area with burlap, newspapers, or boards. Can shade soil, or use light mulch. When seeds germinate lift covers.

24 Germinating Seeds Another tip is to pre-germinate seeds.
Soak seeds overnight in a moistened paper towel enclosed in a plastic bag. Do not soak longer or delicate seedling parts will be damaged in planting. Parsley is a good candidate for this.

25 Fall greens protected with floating row cover draped over wire hoops and secured to the ground with tomato stakes. Row covers keep critters, like rabbits and flea beetles, harlequin bugs and caterpillars, from feeding on plants.

26 Upper left: arugula Bottom left: Russian red kale Right: Osaka Purple mustard

27 A mix of fall vegetable transplants ready for planting in the garden in August.

28 Interplant Use shade from existing plants.
Sow lettuce, carrots, arugula, beets, collards.

29 Mustard greens on north side of tomatoes

30 Planting Schedule (late July)
Last plantings of fast growing warm season vegetables-snap beans. Order garlic. Start cabbage family seedlings indoors. Sow lettuce, cilantro, rutabagas, radishes. Soak or pre-germinate parsley seeds for sowing. May try cukes and summer squash but Aug 8 may be too late. Seedlings of cabbage, broccoli, brussels sprouts immediately. Must be planted out in three-four weeks. Beans require more frequent irrigation than most other vegetables for optimal production. Beans in the blossom and fruit growth stages use the most water of any vegetable. Depending on temperature and wind, beans may use one-half inch or more of water per day. Blossom drop and reduced bloom indicate that beans have been too dry at some time. Even with adequate soil moisture, hot winds can cause beans to drop their blossoms. Tadpole-shaped beans (plump on one end and skinny at the other) are another symptom of past water stress.

31 Planting Schedule 10-12 weeks before hard frost: Set out transplants
Direct sow beets, carrots, collards & more lettuce, radishes Can try fast growing peas

32 Planting Schedule 8 to 10 weeks before hard frost:
Sow Asian greens, arugula, turnips, spinach, mustard More lettuce, radishes, beets, collards

33 Planting Schedule 6 to 8 weeks before hard frost: Sow spinach.
Plant garlic, shallots, multiplying onions. Sow half-hardy vegetables under protective cover. Usually plant garlic around Columbus Day.

34 Protected Gardening: Moving a Zone South
Floating Row Cover Provides 4-10 degrees of protection Cold Frame Hoop House Greenhouse

35 Fall greens protected with floating row cover draped over wire hoops (#9 wire) and secured to the ground with tomato stakes.

36 Floating row cover over pvc hoops to protect fall broccoli and cabbage and cauliflower from pests and to accelerate growth.



39 Cold frame with rigid polycarbonate cover.


41 Herbs for the Cold Frame
Chives Oregano Sage Thyme

42 Planting Fall Crops: Garlic!
Purchase bulbs to plant in October from a seed/plant company; not from grocery store! Choose full sun location Weed area and amend soil with compost Separate cloves and plant them pointed end up, 2 inches deep and 6 inches apart

43 Top dress with compost or mulch to deter weeds
In Spring add fresh layer of compost or mulch Remove any flower stalks to insure large bulbs Harvest when foliage yellows and falls over. Usually in July here. Store in dry cool location

44 References Articles Grisak, Amy, “Second Acts.” Organic Gardening, Aug/Oct 2009, pp Pleasant, Barbara, “Grow Your Best Fall Garden.” Mother Earth News, August/September 2009, pp Books The Maryland Master Gardener Handbook. University of Maryland College of Agriculture and Natural Resources. September 2008. Bubel, Nancy. The New Seed Starters Handbook. Emmaus, Pa: Rodale Press, 1988. Internet Wilson, Carl, “Front Range Food Gardener Blog,” staff Horticulturist with the Colorado State University Extension office in Denver, CSU Extension web site.

45 Fall Chores For a Healthy Garden
Clean up and remove plant debris from garden. Leave vegetable roots in place Dig in or remove summer mulch Add and mix in farm manure or compost. Plant a cover crop in September on bare ground or cover soil with tree leaves. Describe how leaving roots in place improves passage of air and water as they decompose Describe the problem of mulch providing a home for pests. Discuss kinds of mulch and the problem with using hardwood in veggie garden (toxicity, high carbon content, speed of breakdown) Describe advantage of having ground freeze to reduce pathogens and pests and possibly weed seeds.

46 Caring for Perennials Asparagus -Cut to 2 inch stubs after frost, Add 4 to 6 inches mulch Rhubarb - Top dress with composted manure Strawberries - Mulch with straw or organic materials 4” deep after soil freezes Raspberries/blackberries - In winter, remove floricanes which have borne fruit Blueberries - Protect with pine bark mulch, rotted sawdust, or compost around the base of the bush Protect all perennial vegetables from freezing weather with mulch around the base of plants.

47 Reminders for “Putting the Garden to Bed”
Remove all rotten fruit from the ground around trees; insect infestations last through winter. Leave vegetable roots in place but remove diseased tomato, potato, and squash foliage to prevent disease. Do not toss these plants in the compost. Bag and discard. Remove dead branches from roses and fruit trees (no pruning yet).

48 Leave dried flowers, ornamental grasses, and seed heads that look good and provide food for birds.
Protect perennials from frost heaving by mulching after the ground freezes. Protect ornamentals such as azaleas and berry bushes from bud-eating deer with deer netting.

49 Build a simple compost bin or add to your present one all Winter long.
Plant spring bulbs. Including garlic Plant cover crops after harvest to correct soil compaction. Clean and sharpen tools blades Plan next year’s garden!

50 How to Store the Harvest
In-ground growing Unheated attic- onions Unheated basement – Winter squash and pumpkin (stems on) Root cellar Pits with containers Specialized treatments (tomatoes)

51 How to Store the Harvest
Drying Freezing Canning Preserving Pickling

52 UME Master Gardeners’ Mission
Our mission is to educate Maryland residents about safe, effective and sustainable horticultural practices that build healthy gardens, landscapes, and communities.

53 Resources Grow It! Eat It!
We have all types of practical food gardening tips and information. Check out our popular blog! Home and Garden Information Center Here you will find factsheets, photos, and videos. You can also subscribe to the free monthly e-newsletter. We answer gardening questions 24/7…just click “Ask Maryland’s Garden Experts” Maryland Master Gardener Program Consider becoming a trained MG volunteer!

54 This program was brought to you by the
Maryland Master Gardener Program Calvert County University of Maryland Extension Remember to put in the correct county! Created by Jon Traunfeld, Extension Specialist, UME; 2014; revised 2/15

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