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Slide 1 of 48 M6 Workshop June 1999 E VAPORATIVE E MISSIONS IN MOBILE6 L ARRY L ANDMAN MOBILE6 Workshop June 29 - 30, 1999.

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Presentation on theme: "Slide 1 of 48 M6 Workshop June 1999 E VAPORATIVE E MISSIONS IN MOBILE6 L ARRY L ANDMAN MOBILE6 Workshop June 29 - 30, 1999."— Presentation transcript:

1 Slide 1 of 48 M6 Workshop June 1999 E VAPORATIVE E MISSIONS IN MOBILE6 L ARRY L ANDMAN MOBILE6 Workshop June , 1999

2 Slide 2 of 48 M6 Workshop June 1999 Sources of Evaporative Emissions n Hot Soak Emissions n Crankcase Emissions n Refueling Emissions n Resting Loss Emissions n Diurnal Emissions n Running Loss Emissions

3 Slide 3 of 48 M6 Workshop June 1999 Sources of Evaporative Emissions n Hot Soak Emissions n Crankcase Emissions n Refueling Emissions n Resting Loss Emissions n Diurnal Emissions n Running Loss Emissions

4 Slide 4 of 48 M6 Workshop June 1999 Sources of Evaporative Emissions n Hot Soak Emissions n Crankcase Emissions n Refueling Emissions n Resting Loss Emissions n Diurnal Emissions n Running Loss Emissions

5 Slide 5 of 48 M6 Workshop June 1999 Sources of Evaporative Emissions n Hot Soak Emissions n Crankcase Emissions n Refueling Emissions n Resting Loss Emissions n Diurnal Emissions n Running Loss Emissions

6 Slide 6 of 48 M6 Workshop June 1999 Sources of Evaporative Emissions n Hot Soak Emissions n Crankcase Emissions n Refueling Emissions n Resting Loss Emissions n Diurnal Emissions n Running Loss Emissions

7 Slide 7 of 48 M6 Workshop June 1999 Sources of Evaporative Emissions n Hot Soak Emissions n Crankcase Emissions n Refueling Emissions n Resting Loss Emissions n Diurnal Emissions n Running Loss Emissions

8 Slide 8 of 48 M6 Workshop June 1999 Overview of This Presentation n Stratification » Of Analyses » Weighting Factors n Sources of Evaporative Emissions » Diurnal Emissions » Running Loss Emissions

9 Slide 9 of 48 M6 Workshop June 1999 Overview of This Presentation n Stratification » Of Analyses » Weighting Factors n Sources of Evaporative Emissions » Diurnal Emissions » Running Loss Emissions

10 Slide 10 of 48 M6 Workshop June 1999 Overview of This Presentation n Stratification » Of Analyses » Weighting Factors n Sources of Evaporative Emissions » Diurnal Emissions » Running Loss Emissions

11 Slide 11 of 48 M6 Workshop June 1999 Overview of This Presentation n Stratification » Of Analyses » Weighting Factors n Sources of Evaporative Emissions » Diurnal Emissions » Running Loss Emissions

12 Slide 12 of 48 M6 Workshop June 1999 Stratification Of Analyses

13 Slide 13 of 48 M6 Workshop June 1999 Stratification for Each Source For each type of source, the evaporative emissions were estimated separately for each of the following four strata: n ALL “gross liquid leakers” n NOT “gross liquid leakers” » Passing both purge & pressure » Failing the pressure test » Failing only the purge test

14 Slide 14 of 48 M6 Workshop June 1999 Stratification Weighting Factors

15 Slide 15 of 48 M6 Workshop June 1999 Weighting Factors For each of the four strata, the incidence of its occurrence (frequency) is estimated as a logistic growth function of vehicle age.

16 Slide 16 of 48 M6 Workshop June 1999 Weighting Factors For each of the four strata, the incidence of its occurrence (frequency) is estimated as a logistic growth function of vehicle age.

17 Slide 17 of 48 M6 Workshop June 1999 “Gross Liquid Leakers” The First of the Four Strata n Many vehicles may have leaks of liquid gasoline, but NOT all are “Gross Liquid Leakers” n Only the highest emitting of the leakers are “Gross Liquid Leakers” n Some vehicles may be “Gross Liquid Leakers” on only some of the tests

18 Slide 18 of 48 M6 Workshop June 1999 “Gross Liquid Leakers” These are vehicles with substantial leaks of liquid gasoline (as opposed to vapor leaks) and having: n Resting Loss Emissions > 2.0 grams/hr, or n Diurnal Emissions > 25.0 grams/day, or n Hot Soak Test > 10.0 grams/test, or n Running Loss Test > 7.0 grams/mile

19 Slide 19 of 48 M6 Workshop June 1999 “Gross Liquid Leakers” Frequency (From M6.EVP.009)

20 Slide 20 of 48 M6 Workshop June 1999 “Gross Liquid Leakers” Mean Emissions Mean emissions from each source are: n Resting Loss Emissions = 9.16 grams / hr n Diurnal Emissions = grams / day Running Loss Test* = grams / mile Hot Soak Test* » Carbureted = grams / test » TBI = grams / test » PFI = grams / test

21 Slide 21 of 48 M6 Workshop June 1999 Weighting Factors Vehicles NOT “Gross Liquid Leakers” n Data Sources » I/M Lanes in Indiana and Arizona n Statistical Model » Logistic Growth Curves n Compare Purge/Pressure Strata

22 Slide 22 of 48 M6 Workshop June 1999 Weighting Factors Compare Purge & Pressure Strata

23 Slide 23 of 48 M6 Workshop June 1999 Sources of Evaporative Emissions Diurnal Emissions

24 Slide 24 of 48 M6 Workshop June 1999 Diurnal Emissions n Full 24 - Hour Diurnal n Multi - Day Diurnals n Hourly Diurnals n Interrupted Diurnals

25 Slide 25 of 48 M6 Workshop June 1999 Diurnal Emissions n Full 24-Hour Diurnal –1995 and Older Vehicles -- No Change from Previous Workshop –1996 and Newer Vehicles -- New n Multi-Day Diurnals n Hourly Diurnals n Interrupted Diurnals

26 Slide 26 of 48 M6 Workshop June 1999 Diurnal Emissions n Full 24-Hour Diurnal –1995 and Older Vehicles -- No Change from Previous Workshop –1996 and Newer Vehicles -- New n Multi-Day Diurnals n Hourly Diurnals n Interrupted Diurnals

27 Slide 27 of 48 M6 Workshop June and Newer Vehicles (“Enhanced EVAP” Vehicles) n More Stringent Standards » Phasing-In Model Years » Fully Applicable 1999 and Newer n Expected Effects of Standards » On Weighting Factors » On Emission Levels

28 Slide 28 of 48 M6 Workshop June 1999 Enhanced EVAP Vehicles Basic Assumptions (from Report M6.EVP.005 that is posted on website) : n Effects on Distribution of Purge/ Pressure Strata n Effects on Average (Mean) Emission Level of Each Strata

29 Slide 29 of 48 M6 Workshop June 1999 Enhanced EVAP Vehicles Passing Both Purge & Pressure Tests

30 Slide 30 of 48 M6 Workshop June 1999 Enhanced EVAP Vehicles Basic Assumptions (from Report M6.EVP.005 that is posted on website) : n Effects on Distribution of Purge/ Pressure Strata n Effects on Average (Mean) Emission Level of Each Strata

31 Slide 31 of 48 M6 Workshop June 1999 Diurnal Emissions n Full 24-Hour Diurnal –1995 and Older Vehicles -- No Change from Previous Workshop –1996 and Newer Vehicles -- New n Multi-Day Diurnals n Hourly Diurnals n Interrupted Diurnals

32 Slide 32 of 48 M6 Workshop June 1999 Multi-Day Diurnals Multiplicative factors (by strata) for second and third days. (Unchanged After Third Day) ( Report No. M6.EVP.003 )

33 Slide 33 of 48 M6 Workshop June 1999 Multiplicative Factors Multi-Day RTD Tests n Fuel-Injected -- Passing Both » Day_2 = * Day_1 » Day_3 = * Day_2 = * Day_1 n Fuel-Injected -- Failing Either » Day_2 = * Day_1 » Day_3 = * Day_2 = * Day_1 n All Other Strata (i.e., Carbureted) »No Statistically Significant Changes from Day-to-Day

34 Slide 34 of 48 M6 Workshop June 1999 Diurnal Emissions n Full 24-Hour Diurnal –1995 and Older Vehicles -- No Change from Previous Workshop –1996 and Newer Vehicles -- New n Multi-Day Diurnals n Hourly Diurnals n Interrupted Diurnals

35 Slide 35 of 48 M6 Workshop June 1999 Hourly Diurnals Revised Approach Based On: n Purge / Pressure Strata n Fuel Delivery System (Carbureted versus FI) n Temperature Cycle n Fuel RVP n Report Number: M6.EVP New Version

36 Slide 36 of 48 M6 Workshop June 1999 Diurnal Emissions n Full 24-Hour Diurnal –1995 and Older Vehicles -- No Change from Previous Workshop –1996 and Newer Vehicles -- New n Multi-Day Diurnals n Hourly Diurnals n Interrupted Diurnals

37 Slide 37 of 48 M6 Workshop June 1999 Interrupted Diurnals n Situation in which the vehicle operation (driving) occurs after the daily temperature rise has already begun. n Calculations are based on ambient temperature at the time the diurnal emissions resume.

38 Slide 38 of 48 M6 Workshop June 1999 Sources of Evaporative Emissions Running Loss Emissions

39 Slide 39 of 48 M6 Workshop June 1999 Running Loss Emissions n Evaporative Emissions Produced During Vehicle Operation n To Calculate, Subtract Resting Loss Emissions From Running Loss Test Results n See Report Number : M6.EVP.008

40 Slide 40 of 48 M6 Workshop June 1999 Running Loss Emissions n EPA’s Test Data Primarily Used for MOBILE5 n Additional Testing Run for CRC »200 Test Vehicles »Limited Range of Ambient Temperatures, Fuel RVP, and Driving Cycle

41 Slide 41 of 48 M6 Workshop June 1999 Running Loss Emissions Comparing the predictions of resting loss from the MOBILE5 model (adjusted for new Purge and Pressure rates) to results from CRC’s 200-vehicle testing.

42 Slide 42 of 48 M6 Workshop June 1999 Running Loss Emissions Mean Emissions of CRC Testing

43 Slide 43 of 48 M6 Workshop June 1999 Running Loss Emissions Comparison Between CRC Data and M5

44 Slide 44 of 48 M6 Workshop June 1999 Running Loss Emissions Removing “Gross Liquid Leakers” from CRC Data

45 Slide 45 of 48 M6 Workshop June 1999 Running Loss Emissions Proposals for MOBILE6 n For Vehicles Not “Gross Liquid Leakers,” Use MOBILE5 Predictions Within Each Purge/Pressure Stratum n Weight Those Three Strata With the New Stratum of “Gross Liquid Leakers”

46 Slide 46 of 48 M6 Workshop June 1999 References n M6.EVP “Evaluating Resting Loss and Diurnal Evaporative Emissions Using Real Time Diurnal Tests” n M6.EVP “Modeling Hourly Diurnal and Interrupted Diurnal Emissions Based on Real- time Data” n M6.EVP “Evaluating Multiple Day Diurnal Evaporative Emissions Using RTD Tests”

47 Slide 47 of 48 M6 Workshop June 1999 References (Continued) n M6.EVP “Update of Hot Soak Emissions Analysis” n M6.EVP “Modeling Diurnal and Resting Loss Emissions from Vehicles Certified to Enhanced Evaporative Standards” n M6.EVP “Estimating Weighting Factors for Evaporative Emissions in MOBILE6”

48 Slide 48 of 48 M6 Workshop June 1999 References (Continued) n M6.EVP “Hot Soak Emissions as a function of Soak Time” n M6.EVP “Estimating Running Loss Evaporative Emissions in MOBILE6” n M6.EVP “Evaporative Emissions of Gross Liquid Leakers in MOBILE6”


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