Presentation on theme: "Appeals to Emotion, Reason and Logic Common Logical Fallacies."— Presentation transcript:
Appeals to Emotion, Reason and Logic Common Logical Fallacies
Rhetoric Rhetoric is the art of persuasion. The Greek philosopher Aristotle wrote about three factors which could influence the persuasiveness of an argument. They are commonly called the modes of persuasion. These factors were emotional appeals (pathos), ethical appeals (ethos), and logical appeals (logos).
Emotional Appeal (pathos) Persuasion from pathos involves engaging the emotions of the intended audience. But more than just a play on emotions, pathos also invokes one’s sense of identity and self-interest.
Use language that involves the senses –Language that is vivid and relatable is more likely to inspire feeling in the audience. Include a bias or prejudice –Language which invokes a common bias or prejudice is likely to reach the listener on an emotional level. If you knew I didn’t like snakes and your example of evil things included snakes, I would be more disposed to believe your argument. Include an anecdote –A short, real-life relatable example can often make an argument more convincing.
Include connotative language –Certain words carry connotations or associative meaning. These words can be used to shape feelings and expectations. Ex. The word shrill often carries negative connotations and is used to silence assertive women. Explore euphemisms –Euphemisms are more pleasant sounding terms which are substituted for harsher ones. One might object to being called stupid, but a more palatable term might be a few fries short of a Happy Meal. Use description –Description can be used to recreate an event so that the audience can visually picture it.
Use figurative language –The use of figures of speech can often be an effective way to connect to the emotions of an audience. Develop tone –Depending on the audience, the speaker can adopt a different tone to communicate. A less educated audience might require a less sophisticated tone. Experiment with informal language –Informal language can help to connect emotionally with the material being presented. Depending on the audience, however, this might also undermine tone.
Ethical Appeal (ethos) Appeals to ethos refer to enhancing the trustworthiness of the speaker. The more a speaker seems to project an aura of credibility, the more convincing that speaker’s argument will seem to be.
Make the audience believe that the writer is trustworthy –The more the audience believes that the speaker is trustworthy, the more convincing that argument will be. Demonstrate that the writer put in research time –The more the speaker is able to demonstrate that she has educated herself on the topic, the more likely she is to be believed.
Support reasons with appropriate logical evidence –Apart from the persuasion offered by the logical evidence, the use of logical evidence itself will increase the appeal to ethos and credibility. Present a carefully crafted and edited argument –The mor care and attention that the speaker uses, the more convincing the argument will be. Demonstrate that the writer knows the audience and respects them –Establishing a personal rapport with the audience will often enhance the credibility of the speaker.
Show concern about communicating with the audience –The more concern and personal attachment the speaker has with the communication of the material, the more trustworthy she will seem. Convince the audience that the writer is reliable and knowledgeable –Taking steps to establish reliability and expertise will increase that speaker’s trustworthiness.
Logical Appeal (logos) The appeal to logic was Aristotle’s preferred method of argumentation. Logos is the use of strategies of logic to support an argument. Note: just because an appeal is a logical appeal does not mean that it is a successful appeal. It might still fail on a number of levels. Some of the more obvious failures we have already studied in the semester.
Incorporate inductive reasoning –Inductive reasoning uses strong probability (although not absolute certainty) to establish the likelihood of a position. Use deductive reasoning –Deductive reasoning links premises with conclusions. If all the premises are true, then the conclusion is necessarily true. Create a syllogism –A syllogism consists of three parts: a major premise, a minor premise, and a conclusion. Example: Major premise: All humans are mortal. Minor premise: All Greeks are humans. Conclusion: All Greeks are mortal.
Cite commonly held beliefs –Making reference to commonly shared belief structures is a powerful appeal to logic. Allude to history, religious texts, great literature, or mythology –Citing a common reference can enliven and strengthen an otherwise dense or obscure argument. Manipulate the style –Style is very much part of the appeal through logos, especially considering the fact that schemes of repetition serve to produce coherence and clarity, obvious attributes of the appeal to reason.
Draw analogies/ create metaphors –Analogies and metaphors can serve to elucidate points in an appeal to reason. Order chronologically –Simply providing a chronological framework can sometimes prove to be a powerful appeal to reason. Provide evidence, classify evidence, cite authorities, quote research, and use facts –All of the previous techniques can strengthen an appeal to reason through effective use of research and data
Theorize about cause and effect –Attempting to establish a causal relationship is a powerful appeal to the use of reason. Employ various modes of discourse for specific effects –Discourse is a mode of organizing thoughts and ideas. Depending on the rhetorical effect intended, different means of discourse strategies might provide more effective than others. Provide testimony –Sometimes the use of expert testimony can be a logical appeal.
Common Logical Fallacies Ad hominem fallacy –An attack of the person, rather than an attack of the argument. Ad populum fallacy –An appeal to popularity, rather than value. Begging the question –The conclusion is included as a premise of the argument. Another common context is when a proposition is assumed without proof in a context where proof is needed to establish the proposition Either/ or reasoning –Falsely presenting the conclusion as one of two alternatives when there, in fact, might be many possible alternatives
Hasty generalization –Drawing a conclusion based on an insufficient sample size. Non sequitur –Latin for “does not follow.” The conclusion does not follow from the premises. Pedantry –Pedantry is an excessive concern with minor details. Proving an inconsequential detail false does not prove the argument false. Post hoc, ergo propter hoc –“After this, therefore because of this.” Assuming that because something occurs after a preceding action it is caused by it without proving the causal link.