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Information Systems Using Information (Intermediate 2)

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1 Information Systems Using Information (Intermediate 2)

2 Introduction Information and knowledge are so important that society can be divided up into two groups.  Information rich - you have access to:-. many TV and radio channels. books, newspapers and journals. computers and the World Wide Web.  Information poor. tend to not have access to the Web and probably find it difficult to access relevant books and journals.  If you are following this course you will probably be information rich. We are going to examine the nature and uses of information by looking at. 1.Differences between Data and Information. 2.Organisational Information Systems. 3.Information Management Software. 4.Implications of Information and Communications Technology.

3 Data and Information Data  raw unprocessed facts and figures  has no context  no purposeful meaning. Information  is processed data  it has meaning  It has a context.

4 Data and Information Data  36.41  Binary patterns on a disc Information  £36.41 – bill for DVD’s  Processed Data  display on screen, Icons etc.

5 Organisational Information Systems Concepts  Speed, accuracy, efficiency, volume Functions  Gathering, Storing, Processing and outputting Information. Strategies  Network, Security, Backup, Upgrade, Software Centralised Database System

6 Concepts in Relation to Organisational Management Systems Speed.  The processor is able to carry out millions of calculations per second. Accuracy.  computers store and process numbers to a great degree of accuracy.  depends on the software written and of course human accuracy.  Much financial software is accurate to 3 decimal places rounded to 2.  the software and hardware combined will perform the calculation correctly every time.

7 Concepts in Relation to Organisational Management Systems (2) Volume.  The number of transactions in a period of time is the volume. Efficiency.  The efficiency of an Information System is a combination of the speed, accuracy and volume of the data processed.

8 The Functions Of An Organisational Information System Gathering Data  Turnaround Documents in mail order and bills.  Bar Codes on almost every item sold  Call Centres, customers pay by card.  Internet Ordering – Credit and Debit cards  Cards with magnetic strips and chip and PIN  Magnetic Ink Character reader on cheques.  Optical character recognition  Mark Sense reader (Lottery tickets)  In each case the data is captured and then stored electronically and used for some purpose.

9 The Functions Of An Organisational Information System Storing Information  Magnetic Media Magnetic Tape – long term and backup storage. Very cheap but slow to access. Hard Disk – Very fast random access, used in most applications including ordering and booking systems.  Optical Media CD-ROMS and DVD’s – both available in writeable and re-writeable formats. Not as flexible as disk, but very compact.

10 The Functions Of An Organisational Information System Processing Data.  Searching and Selection. Search and select a sub-section of the data that matches specified criteria.  Sorting and Rearranging. Alphabetic or numeric, ascending or descending.  Aggregating. Summarising data by totalling details.  Performing Calculations. Working out bills like utility bills.

11 The Functions Of An Organisational Information System Outputting Information.  Paper. Till receipts, statements, cheques, internal reports and almost anything.  Screen. Data entry screens and reports for managers. Web aware applications where pages are viewed as if on the Internet.  File. Saving to backing storage. Files can be e-mailed as attachments.

12 Organisational Information System Management Strategies Network Strategy.  Addresses Data Transfer, Distribution, Access & Security, Facilities, Storage. Security Strategy.  Deals with access to the network and keeping unauthorised people out. Backup & Recovery Strategy.  To ensure data is not accidentally erased and can be recovered once backed up. Upgrade Strategy.  To plan new hardware and software and ensure everything new will work properly. Software Strategy.  Choose between bespoke and standard packages.

13 Network Strategy Networks.  LAN (Local Area Network) – in one building. Device Sharing. Software Sharing. Data Sharing. Communication.  WAN (Wide Area Network) – over a city, country or the wide world. Uses telecommunications.  Distributed Networks. LAN with several servers, data accessible from all over the network.

14 Security Strategy Security, Integrity and Privacy of Data. Data Security means keeping data safe from physical loss. Data Integrity means the correctness of the stored data. Data Privacy means keeping data secret so that unauthorised users cannot access it.

15 Backup Strategy Every computer user should have a strategy in place to backup their data. Backing up is the process of making a copy of data stored on fixed hard disks to some other media. This can be tape, external portable hard disks, writeable CD-ROM or DVD. The purpose of backing up data is to ensure that the most recent copy of the data can be recovered and restored in the event of data loss. Reasons for loss.  electronic disasters such as a disk head.  files being accidentally erased,  the disk being attacked by a virus.

16 Upgrade Strategy Future Proofing.  making sure that a system has a reasonable life and does not need to be totally replaced too soon.  Hardware & software compatibility will older s/w work with new operating systems etc. will older h/w work with newer equipment (e.g. printers with computers).

17 Issues Affecting Decisions to Upgrade Software Lack of functionality.  Business changes, new technology outdates software. Hardware Incompatibility.  Upgraded computers do not support old software. Software Incompatibility.  New operating system will not run old software. Perfecting the Software.  Removing bugs and improving it – will existing data work with it.

18 Software Strategy Needs to take account of the issues :-  evaluating the software for use, using several key criteria  the user support for the software  the training supplied for end users of the software  the upgrade path of the software

19 Centralised Database A very large and powerful database - at the heart of an organisation.  Database program is called the database engine and it saves and indexes files in tables and manages the relationships between the tables.  information can be found fairly easily by querying the centralised database.  Usually a multi-user or network system is used which means that any user on the system can have access to the database. Advantages to the database being centralised.  much easier to organise, edit, update and back-up the data.  Communications are easier.  no real disadvantages to a centralised database.

20 Information Management Software Uses of Types of Software Word Processing Software Spreadsheet Software Evaluation of Software

21 Information Management Software (1) Word Processing  Commonest Application - Word Spreadsheet  Financial and numerical analysis and record keeping - Excel Database  Store, select, sort data Graphics Design  Create & manipulate pictures Browsers  Surf the Net Email Client  Compose, Send & receive e:mails

22 Information Management Software (2) Chat Client  Send & receive messages interactively Desk-Top Publishing (DTP)  Layout text & graphics professionally Presentation  Create slide shows Reference  Encyclopaedias & dictionaries Financial  Manage and control money Web Authoring  Create web pages and sites

23 Word Processing Software Data Objects.  characters, words  paragraphs  graphic objects. Formatting functions  found mostly in the format menu  also on the icons on the menu line with B I U on it.

24 Word Processing Software Operations. File Menu – performed on whole files. Edit Menu – cut, copy and paste. View Menu – including headers and footers. Insert Menu – Page break, date/time, picture etc. Format Menu – format text (an extensive menu). Tools Menu – Mail merge, spelling and grammar, options and customisation. Table Menu – Insert table then table operations. Window and Help much as in other Windows applications.

25 Spreadsheet Software Data Objects.  Cells and groups of cells  containing text, numbers, formulas. Formatting functions  found mostly in the format menu  also on the icons on the menu line with B I U on it.

26 Spreadsheet Software Operations. File Menu – performed on whole files. Edit Menu – cut, copy and paste. View Menu – including headers and footers. Insert Menu – rows, columns, worksheet, functions. Format Menu – format cells including numeric like currency as well as standard text formatting. Tools Menu – spelling protection and macros. Data Menu – Sort, filter and pivot tables. Window and Help much as in other Windows applications.

27 Evaluation of Software Range of Data Objects.  Are the objects appropriate to the software.  e.g. graphics and audio files important for web design. Range of Operations.  Appropriate to software – database should have good search and sort and reporting. Formatting Functions.  Look at fonts, style, graphics handling, paragraphing, text wrap, numerical formats etc. HCI.  Use of keyboard commands, menus, toolbars and icons. Help and Tutorials.  Most package have on-line help and tutorials.  Often displayed as web pages but are NOT on the Internet.

28 Implications of ICT Social Implications Legal Implications Economic Implications Ethical Implications

29 Social Implications Ease of Access and Availability Information Rich / Poor Impact of IS on Social Structures Educational Qualifications and ICT Knowledge Workers Online retail and changing shopping habits

30 Ease of Access and Availability.  Access to Internet at work and home.  Digital Satellite TV with all its services.  Access to magazines, books & newspapers.  Access in social lives – libraries and Internet cafes.  We expect Internet access on holiday and in hotel rooms.  Fact – There are more telephones in the city of New York than the continent of Africa (and telephones give access to information).

31 Information rich/Information poor Information rich – They will:-  Have easy access to computers and electronic communications.  Get information and news from the Internet  Buy the latest products through on-line shopping.  Follow computer-based learning and skills training courses at home  Look for jobs that are advertised solely on the Internet.  Find it easier to get well-paid jobs and will enjoy a more comfortable and secure life-style. Information poor – They will not:-  Have easy access to computers  Have the IT skills and confidence to take part in teleshopping, telebanking, Internet chat and news groups.

32 Impact of IS on Social Structures Families.  Feel more secure with two wages coming into the family.  More mothers have careers and they may not have any children till they are 30 or older.  Is this change in family patterns partly caused by computerisation?  Are there any risks to the family and to society as a whole from this development? Banks.  Used to be paper based and only for middle and upper classes – reasons of wealth and trust.  Use of IT means anyone can have a bank account – transaction processing and high levels of security.  Now widespread use of plastic money – credit and debit cards.

33 Educational Qualifications and ICT Educational Qualifications.  Qualifications in Computing since the early 1960’s, but these were solely in Universities and colleges.  mid 1980’s computing was available in schools.  1999 two strands of software and hardware divided into Computing and Information Systems.  Now there are very many different courses offered at degree and NC level all related to ICT. Need for ICT awareness.  ICT lets people vote by text on game shows, shop on the Internet, use digital TV to order goods.  Families sending digital photos round the world.  Almost all office jobs and professionals need to use ICT.

34 Knowledge Workers Knowledge worker.  someone who adds value by processing existing information to create new information that could be used to define and solve problems. Examples of knowledge workers.  include lawyers, doctors, diplomats, law-makers, software developers, managers and bankers.  use their intellect to convert their ideas into products, services, or processes.  a problem solver rather than a production worker.  Uses intellectual rather than manual skills to earn a living.

35 Knowledge Workers Core knowledge workers.  Those in specific ‘knowledge management’ roles.  Knowledge Managers, Librarians, Content Managers, Information Officers, Knowledge Analysts, etc. Everyone else.  All the other knowledge workers  everyone engaged in some form of ‘knowledge work’.

36 Online Retail Internet shopping – the here and now.  Young people much more likely to shop on-line than older people.  Young people spend on low value goods (CDs, DVDs, books and hair straightness.  Older people spend on high value items like holidays and make repeat grocery orders. Why Internet Shop?  Goods difficult to buy locally.  Goods often much cheaper.  National chains carry the same goods – the Internet gives more choice.

37 Advantages of Online Shopping Consumer – Advantages.  More choice of goods on-line.  Cheaper prices.  Home delivery – Grocery shopping on-line very useful for young families. On-line Retailer – Advantages.  Can reach a far wider audience.  Don’t need expensive showrooms.  Don’t need to employ trained sales staff.

38 Disadvantages of Online Shopping Consumer – Disadvantages.  Often long delivery times.  Temptation to spend more than intended.  Social isolation (supermarkets are the new social scene). On-line Retailer – Disadvantages.  Must spend money on a web site with secure payment system.  Must accept a high rate of returns.  Never meets customers.

39 Legal Implications of Information Systems The Data Protection Act 1998 Computer Misuse Act 1990 Copyright Designs and Patents Act 1988 Health and safety Regulations

40 The 1998 Data Protection Act The 8 Data Protection Principles.  Personal data shall be processed fairly and lawfully.  Personal data shall be obtained only for lawful purposes,  Personal data shall be adequate, relevant and not excessive.  Personal data shall be accurate and, kept up to date.  Personal data shall not be kept for longer than is necessary.  Personal data shall be processed in accordance with the rights of data subjects.  Appropriate measures shall be taken against unauthorised or unlawful processing of data.  Personal data shall not be transferred to a country outside Europe. Data must be registered with the Data Commissioner.

41 The 1998 Data protection Act Unconditional exemptions.  Data related to National Security.  Data which by law has to be made public (e.g. voters’ roll).  Data held by the Police and National Health Service. conditional exemptions.  mailing lists (names and addresses).  data used for calculating and paying wages.  information used for club memberships.  data used by a data subject at home.

42 The 1998 Data Protection Act Rights of Data Subjects.  To see any personal data stored either electronically or manually about them.  The Data controller may ask that a small fee be paid to cover their costs in providing the data.  To have their data corrected if it is inaccurate.  To prevent their data being used by companies to send them junk mail. Responsibilities of Data Users.  Have to register with the Data Protection Registrar if they wished to hold personal information about data subjects.  They must be willing to let data subjects see data held about them, but must amend any false data without charge.  Data Users must also be willing to remove subjects’ names and addresses from mailing lists if asked to.

43 Computer Misuse Act The Act contains three sections covering:-.  Unauthorised access to computer material. Basic hacking – e.g. breaking into the school network, locking a user out of the system etc.  Unauthorised access with intent to commit or facilitate commission of further offences. Where a computer system is used to help commit a crime.  Unauthorised modification of computer material. Expert hacking – modification of data without permission. Also covers the transmission of viruses.

44 Copyright, Designs & Patents Act Software Licensing.  Software can be legally installed on as many computers as the licence allows.  Shareware can be used legally for 30 days then either paid for or deleted.  Freeware can be downloaded and used free of charge. Computer Applications.  Databases can store vast amounts of copyright data.  Act covers extracts from computer databases.  Plagiarism to copy work directly from the Web.  Music downloads must be paid for and copyright checked.  Software piracy a crime - FAST.

45 Health and Safety Regulations Covers physical aspects of work.  Seating. Is the seating comfortable and not causing strain?  Lighting. Is the lighting adequate for the work? Employee Injuries etc.  Repetitive Strain Injury (RSI). Caused by doing the same repetitive task too long (typing numbers all day on the number pad).  Radiation. Not so much of a problem now but the big old monitors emitted a lot of radiation and were very dangerous.  Eye Strain. Caused by spending too much time looking at the screen.

46 Economic Implications of ICT Type of Jobs and Costs in ICT. The Effect of New ICT on Business. Business and ICT.

47 Jobs in ICT Starting Positions.  Programmer / Analyst. Responsible for program development and modification,  Web Administrator. Responsible for developing, managing and co-ordinating the posting of company material from departments onto the company web site.  Network Administrator. Responsible for the day-to-day management and maintenance of the network.  Salaries. in the region of £20,000 to £30,000 depending on the level of responsibility.

48 Jobs in ICT Advanced development positions.  Database Manager. Responsible for identifying needs and developing software accordingly. There is an increasing role for data mining and data warehousing experts in this field.  Project Leader and Senior Analyst. Sometimes separate posts, sometimes a joint post the project leader will liase with directors and top managers and translate ideas into computer related documentation.  IT Manager. Generally in charge of the entire IT operation, staff and equipment.  Salaries. These senior posts can carry very high salaries with fringe benefits such as company cars.

49 The Effect of New ICT on Business Costs.  Investing in a new computerised system is very expensive.  Staff training a major cost. Benefits.  Increased productivity (fewer staff).  Increased functionality.  Reports from the computerised system can save the expense of professionals.

50 Ethical Implications of ICT Netiquette Information Intellectual Property Rights Censorship Regulating The Content of The Internet Privacy and Encryption Global Citizenship

51 Netiquette General Points.  Treat others the way you expect to be treated.  Act within the Law.  Act responsibly and ethically. Advice.  Do not type e:mails in capitals – shouting.  Always fill in the subject field.  Don’t abuse people – Flaming.  Always minimize or compress large files.  Do not forward stupid jokes and chain letters.  Do not forward hoax virus warnings.

52 Intellectual Property Rights Written Work.  Knowledge the principal source of competitive advantage.  All original work published on the Internet has IRP.  Applies also to Software. Music Etc.  IRPs relate to the Internet sites where music can be downloaded from.  Copyright material must usually be paid for as the publishers of the music own the IRPs.

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