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Addressing Individual Challenging Behavior through Function-based Support George Sugai US Dept. of Educ.Center on PBIS Center for Behavioral Education.

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Presentation on theme: "Addressing Individual Challenging Behavior through Function-based Support George Sugai US Dept. of Educ.Center on PBIS Center for Behavioral Education."— Presentation transcript:

1 Addressing Individual Challenging Behavior through Function-based Support George Sugai US Dept. of Educ.Center on PBIS Center for Behavioral Education & Research University of Connecticut July

2 FBA Basics

3 Function-based support is all about… Re-design & improvement of learning & teaching environments –Attention to environment & function –Not re-design of individuals –Change in behavior of implementers

4 Non-validated School Interventions for Students with EBD EXAMPLES Sensory re-integration or stimulation Facilitated communication Introspective psychoanalytic therapies Rebirthing therapies CONCERNS Poor ecological (school) validity Redirected specification of actual causal factors Adverse side effects False hopes & expectations Inefficient use of resources & opportunities Lack of empirical support EVIDENCE-BASED INVESTMENTS Cognitive-Behavioral Therapies Targeted Social Skills Instruction School-based Mental Health Wraparound Function-based Behavior Analytic Interventions Psychopharmacological-Behavioral Therapies EVIDENCE-BASED INVESTMENTS Cognitive-Behavioral Therapies Targeted Social Skills Instruction School-based Mental Health Wraparound Function-based Behavior Analytic Interventions Psychopharmacological-Behavioral Therapies

5 Behavior Support Elements Problem Behavior Functional Assessment Intervention & Support Plan Fidelity of Implementation Impact on Behavior & Lifestyle *Response class *Routine analysis *Hypothesis statement *Alternative behaviors *Competing behavior analysis *Contextual fit *Strengths, preferences, & lifestyle outcomes *Evidence-based interventions *Implementation support *Data plan *Continuous improvement *Sustainability plan Team-based Behavior competence

6 What is Function Based Support?

7 SWPBS Conceptual Foundations Behaviorism ABA PBS SWPBS Laws of Behavior Applied Behavioral Technology Social Validity All Students

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10 Functional approach logic Behaviors are maintained by consequence events (function) –Positive or negative reinforcement Behaviors are occasioned by antecedent events –Relate antecedent to emission of behavior & likelihood of consequence event Changing behaviors requires consideration of maintaining consequences

11 3. How do I know if FBA has been done?

12 FBA LEVELS 1.Informal  Archival Review  Problem Solving Meeting 2. Indirect  Checklist  FA Interview  Routine Analysis 3. Direct Observation  A-B-C  Structured, Planned Observation 4. Planned Manipulation  Experimental or Functional Analysis MORE INFORMAL EASIER SIMPLE INDIRECT MORE DIRECT COMPLICATED DIFFICULT FORMAL

13 Requirements

14 FBA Elements Contextually Appropriate Support Testable Hypothesis Function Statement Competing Path Analysis Supporting Data Behavior Intervention Plan Definition of Problem Behavior or Class

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16 Setting EventsTriggering Antecedents Maintaining Consequences Problem Behavior Testable Hypothesis “Basic Unit” Following events that maintain behaviors of concern (function) Preceding events that trigger or occasion Set of related behaviors of concern (RC) Infrequent events that affect value of maint. conseq. “Best guess” about behavior & conditions under which it is observed Represents basic working unit of FBA Directly guides development of BIP

17 Setting Events –Unique situations in which factors unique to individual Make problem behavior more intense or more likely to occur (e.g., illness, fatigue, hunger, social conflict). –By changing value of reinforcers E.g., praise less effective, peer attention is more reinforcing, work completion is less important.

18 Work completion is less important (reinforcing) to Demetri after he has had an argument with his girlfriend before class, or Cologne’s use of verbal profanity is more likely (escape) when she hasn’t had enough sleep night before, or Peer attention is less distracting (reinforcing) when Manuella isn’t feeling well.

19 Lack of sleep decreases value (reinforcement) of getting to school on time, increases value of going to Hot Dog Haven. Lack of breakfast increases value (reinforcement) of getting sent to office (by fending machines) for failing to follow directions. Having a fight with boyfriend decreases value (reinforcement) of listening to lecture. Getting >50% of problem wrong decreases value (reinforcement) of starting new worksheets.

20 “FUNCTION” = outcome, result, purpose, consequence

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22 Only 2 Basic Functions Pos Reinf Neg Reinf Existing aversive condition identified

23 Ingram, Lewis-Palmer, & Sugai, 2005

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29 Consider response chains Predictable sequence of behaviors Possibly different functions at beginning & end of chains

30 Ex1. Behavior Chain

31 Ex2. Behavior Chain

32 When Sequoia misses her 12:30 medication & teachers present multiple task demands, she makes negative self-statements & writes profane language on her assignments. Teaching staff typically send her to the office with a discipline referral for being disrespectful. Setting eventAntecedentResponseConsequence Misses 12:30 medication Teachers make multiple task demands Sequoia makes negative self- statements & writes profane language Teacher sends Sequoia to office for being disrespectful What function? Avoid difficult tasks

33 Behavior Support Elements Problem Behavior Functional Assessment Intervention & Support Plan Fidelity of Implementation Impact on Behavior & Lifestyle *Response class *Routine analysis *Hypothesis statement *Alternative behaviors *Competing behavior analysis *Contextual fit *Strengths, preferences, & lifestyle outcomes *Evidence-based interventions *Implementation support *Data plan *Continuous improvement *Sustainability plan Team-based Behavior competence

34 Setting eventAntecedentResponseConsequence Caesar is teased several times about his hair by his friends before class His teacher stares at his hair in class Caesar asks his teacher what she’s staring at His teacher sends him to in-school detention Caesar has dyed his hair three colors & is teased several times by his friends before class. When he enters the class, his teacher stares at his hair. Caesar immediately says “what are you staring at?” His teacher immediately sends him to in-school detention. What function? Escape adult & peer attention

35 Setting eventAntecedentResponseConsequence Cleo is new to the 6th grade, & English is her second language. When another student approaches & says something to her in English, Cleo turns away. The other student walks away. This happens several times during the day. New studentStudent approaches & speaks in English Cleo turns away Other student walks away What function? Escape peer attention

36 Setting eventAntecedentResponseConsequence When his teacher asks him what the capitol city of a country is, Napoleon gives the correct answers. His teacher praises his correct answer, & tells him he may work by himself or a friend on the rest of the assignment. None Teacher asks what capitol city of country is Napoleon give correct answer Teacher gives verbal praise & time to work with a friend What function? Access peer & adult attention

37 Setting eventAntecedentResponseConsequence As Veloce is walking, other kids look at him & say “what’s up?” He looks back and says: “Who ya lookin’ at?!” “Ya want some of this?!” “Ya talkin’ to me?!” Kids shake their heads & all him “weirdo.” ??Look at him. “What’s up!” “Who ya lookin’ at?” “Ya want Some?” “Ya talkin’ to me? Kids shake heads & call him “weirdo” What function? Access OR escape peer attention? How do you know? Assess?

38 TE is “best guess.” What if testable hypothesis is incomplete or inaccurate?

39 TE1 for Hillary: "When Hillary sits next to Bill, Hillary whispers in his ear. Bill laughs." Test manipulation? –Put Al in Bill’s seat. Effect: –Hillary whispers in Al’s ear. Develop new TE!

40 TE2: “When Hillary sits next to boys, she whispers in their ears. The boys laugh.” Test manipulation? –Put Monica in Bill’s seat. Effect: –Hillary does not whisper.

41 Avoid explanatory fictions Restatement of problem & not measurable (-) She’s aggressive because she’s angry (+) When she is teased about her looks & family, she uses profanity & hits until the teasing stops.

42 Avoid explanatory fictions Not measurable or testable (-) He’s emotionally disturbed (+) When he is with peers, he talks about hurting them & himself.

43 “Petunia” Problem: Petunia is in 9th grade & very inattentive. In class, she is forever inattentive, distractible, off-task, & bothering others. Explanatory fiction: Petunia has ADHD & conduct disorders Testable hypothesis: Petunia works on each assignment for about 2 minutes, answers before presentation of questions are completed, asks other students for help, & gets out of her seat 12 times per 30 min. period.

44 “Rhus” Problem: Rhus is an 11th grader with autism. He’s high functioning but is hated by his peers. When he gets frustrated, he screams & bites his hand. Explanatory fiction: Rhus has Fragile X & is emotionally disturbed Testable hypothesis: Rhus has verbal skills to describe his situation, but if presented with difficult academic work & short timelines, he screams until teachers help him. If peers tease him, he bites his hand, & the teasing stops.

45 “Catoneaster” Problem: Catoneaster is a 7th grader who resists going to school each morning. Explanatory fiction: Catoneaster has parent separation anxiety Testable hypothesis: Catoneaster finds attention from his Dad to be very rewarding. His mother died when he was 5 years old. When he argues with his Dad in the parking lot, his Dad takes him out for breakfast & brings him back during 2nd period.

46 “Azalea” Problem: Azalea is an 8th grader who skips most of her morning classes. Explanatory fiction: Azalea is a school phobic. Testable hypothesis: On days she misses breakfast, Azalea goes to the cafeteria to eat instead of going to class. When she gets to the cafeteria, she visits with her friends until a teacher tells her to go class. Her friends tell her she is cool the way she talks to teachers & skips 1 st period.

47 Setting eventAntecedentResponseConsequence WRITE TESTABLE HYPOTHESIS: As Veloce is walking, other kids look at him & say “what’s up?” He looks back and says: “Who ya lookin’ at?!” “Ya want some of this?!” “Ya talkin’ to me?!” Kids shake their heads & all him “weirdo.” ??Look at him. “What’s up!” “Who ya lookin’ at?” “Ya want Some?” “Ya talkin’ to me? Kids shake heads & call him “weirdo”

48 Example 1: Different behaviors with different functions Kirsten’s teachers agree that she has two behaviors that interfere with her social success at school, & develop two testable hypotheses:

49 Setting Event  Antecedent Event  Behavior  Consequence Event None Teacher presents multiple step request. Verbal protest, non- compliance, foot stomping. Teacher repeats request 4 to 5 times & threatens after school suspension. Setting Event  Antecedent Event  Behavior  Consequence Event None Peers play game & have conflict. Pushes peers away, uses profanity, throws rocks. Peers stop playing with Kirsten. Get adult attention Escape peer social

50 Example 2: Same behaviors with different functions Amy teachers have noticed two different conditions when Amy displays same problem behaviors. They developed following two testable hypotheses:

51 Setting Event  Antecedent Event  Behavior  Consequence Event None Peers try to engage Amy in con- versations. Turns eyes away, does not comply verbally, pulls sweater over his head. Peers move away. Setting Event  Antecedent Event  Behavior  Consequence Event None Teachers give Amy corrective feedback about her work. Turns eyes away, does not comply verbally, pulls sweater over his head. Teachers sit down next to her, rub her shoulders, & say comforting words. Avoid peer attention Get adult social

52 Functional Assessment Checklist for Teachers “FACTS” STEP 1: Student/ Grade: _____Clarence/5th grade_____Date: ____January 11___________ Interviewer: ___________Sugai________Respondent(s): ____Thomas_____ STEP 2: Student Profile: Please identify at least three strengths or contributions the student brings to school. C. has leadership potential. Peers listened to him, and he can be very convincing and sincere. He’s academically competent and seems to be moving smoothly and successfully through the school curriculum. STEP 3: Problem Behavior(s): Identify problem behaviors ___Tardy_X Fight/physical Aggression ___ Disruptive___ Theft___ UnresponsiveX Inappropriate Language_X__ Insubordination___ Vandalism___ Withdrawn_X__ Verbal Harassment____Work not done___ Other __________ ____X _ Verbally Inappropriate___ Self-injury Describe problem behavior:C. may have one of the shortest fuses I’ve seen. One little tease by a peer, and he quickly and predictably escalates through a behavioral sequence that begins with passive in subordination (non response), moves to a mild protest, shifts to harassment and name calling, increases to property damage and even to physical aggression. Its interesting that he seems to “enjoy” the reactions he gets from peers that he aggresses toward, and from peers who look up to him for his aggressiveness.

53 STEP 4: Routine Analysis Schedule (Times) ActivityLikelihood of Problem BehaviorSpecific Problem Behavior 8:00Waiting to enter building Low High See escalation described above 8:15Advisory & Planning Mostly teasing and touching property of others. Doesn’t escalate much further 9:15Language Arts Occasional name calling/teasing 10:15Recess See escalation described above 11:30Math Occasional teasing 12:00Lunch See escalation described above 12:35Earth Science Minor verbal harassment 1:15Art or Phy Ed See escalation described above 2:00Reading Rarely a problem 2:50Waiting for bus See escalation described above


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