2Components to cover: PARALLELISM: FAULTY PARALLELISM COMPLETE SENTENCE SENTENCE FRAGMENTS
3DEFINITION OF PARALLELISM Parallelism is a similarity of form in words, phrases, or clauses that have similar functions in a sentence or a paragraph.It also refers to writing equivalent ideas in similar grammatical form. Parallelism helps achieve balance in a sentence and tends to equalize the importance given to each of the items mentioned.
4WHEN TO USE PARALLELISM? ExampleErin likes surfing the net, working out, and visiting her family.Chocolate and peanut butter taste great together.WHEN TO USE PARALLELISM?1. Items in Lists: Words, phrases, or clauses in a list or series should all have the same grammatical structure.2. Items Joined by Coordinating Conjunctions: Words or phrases joined by coordinating conjunctions should have the same structure.
5WHEN TO USE PARALLELISM? Example3. We could go fishing or go bicycling.4. I like blue cars as opposed to red cars.WHEN TO USE PARALLELISM?3. Elements joined by correlative conjunctions, such as "either or" and not "only . . .but also," should be parallel.4. Two elements that are compared or contrasted should be expressed in parallel structures.
6WHAT IS FAULTY PARALLELISM? When similar parts of a sentence do not follow the same structure, you have created Faulty Parallelism.
7UNDERSTANDING PARALLELISM Examplea) Faulty (F): I enjoy basketball more than playing video games.Correct (C): I enjoy basketball more than video games.b) F: On our anniversary, we ate, danced, and were singing.C: On our anniversary, we ate, danced, and sang.c) My history class was both interesting and a challenge.C: My history class was both interesting and challenging.UNDERSTANDING PARALLELISMUse similar structures to express similar ideas.a)Put nouns with nounsb)Put verbs with verbsc)Put adjectives with adjectives
8PARALLELISM IN PAIRS AND LISTS ExampleFaulty: I am doing well in my English class, in my math class, and my history class.Correct: I am doing well in my English class, in my math class, and in my history class..PARALLELISM IN PAIRS AND LISTSParallelism in pairs and list is used when you present two or more items in a series joined by and or or, use similar form for each item.
9PARALLELISM IN COMPARISON ExampleF: Driving to Austin is as fast as to fly.C: Driving to Austin is as fast as flying.F: Buying textbooks is almost as expensive as tuition.C: Buying textbooks is almost as expensive as paying tuition.C: Textbooks are almost as expensive as tuition.PARALLELISM IN COMPARISONIn comparisons, the items being compared must have parallel structure.
10My neighbor is a novelist, a gardener, and a horseman. ExampleThe anthropologist traveled into heated jungles, along insect-infested rivers, and up steep mountain trails.My neighbor is a novelist, a gardener, and a horseman.FAULTY PARALLELISMRemember that items in series should be in continuation and in parallel structure.
11Example FAULTY PARALLELISM Faulty: The president of the club wondered whether he should pay the bills or to resign.Correct: The president of the club wondered whether he should pay the bills or resign.FAULTY PARALLELISMAlternatives joined by “and,” “or,” “but,” or “nor” should be parallel.
12ACTIVITY 1 Read the sentence carefully and choose the right option: Question1:Barking dogs, kittens that were meowing, and squawking parakeets greet the pet shop visitors.Barking dogs, meowing kittens, and squawking parakeets greet the pet shop visitors.Dogs that bark, kittens that meow, and parakeets squawking greet the pet shop visitors.
13ACTIVITY 1Read the sentence carefully and choose the right option:Question2:During class, Samuel spent his time flirting with Brittney, eating candy, and doodling on the assignment sheet.During class, Samuel spent his time flirting with Brittney, he ate candy, and doodling on the assignment sheet.During class, Samuel spent his time to flirt with Brittney, to eat candy, and doodling on the assignment sheet.
14ACTIVITY 1Read the sentence carefully and choose the right option:Question 3:Alex looked everywhere for his math book—under the bed, on his desk, and he searched inside the refrigerator.Alex looked everywhere for his math book— viewing under the bed, searching on his desk, and inside the refrigerator.Alex looked everywhere for his math book—under the bed, on his desk, and inside the refrigerator.
15ACTIVITY 1Read the sentence carefully and choose the right option:Question 4:The manager wanted staff who arrived on time, smiled at the customers, and didn’t snack on the chicken nuggets.The manager wanted staff who arrived on time, would be smiling at the customers, and would not be snacking on the chicken nuggets.The manager wanted staff who arrived on time, smiled at the customers, and no snacking on the chicken nuggets.
16Read the sentence carefully and choose the right option: Question 5: ACTIVITY 1Read the sentence carefully and choose the right option:Question 5:After giving Jeremy her phone number, Felicia had to tolerate his late night calls, stupid conversations, and requests for her math homework.After giving Jeremy her phone number, Felicia had to tolerate his late night calls, the fact that he carried on stupid conversations, and requests for her math homework.After giving Jeremy her phone number, Felicia had to tolerate being woken up late at night, having stupid conversations, and he constantly requested her math homework.
17Question 1: B Question 2: A Question 3: C Question 4: A Question 5: A ANSWERS TO ACTIVITY 1Question 1: BQuestion 2: AQuestion 3: CQuestion 4: AQuestion 5: A
18ACTIVITY 2Fill in the blanks with the correct option:1. Pasta boiling in water, __________, and garlic bread baking in the oven welcomed Francisco as he opened the door.simmered tomato sauce in the pantomato sauce simmering in the pantomato sauce that simmered in the pansaucy tomatoes that were simmering in the pan
19ACTIVITY 2Fill in the blanks with the correct option:2. During our vacation in the Bahamas, we hope __________, to enjoy beautiful sunsets, and to dance ourselves dizzy at reggae clubs.that we eat delicious seafoodthat eating delicious seafood occursto eat delicious seafoodeating delicious seafood
20ACTIVITY 2Fill in the blanks with the correct option:3. Karen wished Ray chewed with his mouth closed, for otherwise he was everything she wanted in a date; he was tall, intelligent, and __________.he looked goodbeing good lookingone handsome man to look athandsome
21ACTIVITY 2Fill in the blanks with the correct option:4. To win Laurie’s love, Albert visited the florist for roses, the drugstore for a box of chocolates, and __________.bought an expensive gold necklace at the jewelry storethe jeweler for an expensive gold necklacethe jeweler where he bought an expensive gold necklaceto buy an expensive gold necklace
22ACTIVITY 2Fill in the blanks with the correct option:5. Kimberly won’t date Terry because he is too short, too noisy, and _________.because he picks his teeth with his fingerstoo impoliteis the most impolite man she has ever metPicking his teeth with his fingers
23Question 1: B Question 2: C Question 3: D Question 4: B Question 5: B ANSWERS TO ACTIVITY 2Question 1: BQuestion 2: CQuestion 3: DQuestion 4: BQuestion 5: B
24WHAT IS A SENTENCE FRAGMENT? Sentences are in fragments only when they do not have a clause attached to them. There are some punctuations needed for new sentences.A sentence tells a complete idea. A fragment tells and incomplete idea.
25WHAT IS A COMPLETE SENTENCE? ExampleMy homework is taking every waking hour.INCLUDESSubject (My homework)Verb (is taking )Expresses a complete idea (I’m tired!)WHAT IS A COMPLETE SENTENCE?A complete sentence must have:A subjectA verbMust express a complete idea.It must start with a capital letter in the beginning and end with a full stop.
26Example FRAGMENTED SENTENCE My math homework. No VERB: Doesn’t express the actionTaking every waking hour.No SUBJECT: Doesn’t explain who or whatBecause my math homework is taking every waking hour.No COMPLETED IDEA. Because of this, what?FRAGMENTED SENTENCEA sentence that does not have either a verb, a subject or a complete idea.
27Example COMMON FRAGMENT TYPES FRAGMENTED SENTENCE: I tried everything I could think of to get an A. Such as bribing the professor.COMPLETE SENTENCE:I tried everything I could think of to get an A, such as bribing the professor.COMMON FRAGMENT TYPESAPPOSITIVE PHRASE:An appositive phrase is a word that explains or adds extra information.
28Example COMMON FRAGMENT TYPES FRAGMENTED SENTENCE:I hope to complete the requirements for my major. By the end of next semester.COMPLETE SENTENCE:I hope to complete the requirements for my major by the end of next semester.COMMON FRAGMENT TYPESPREPOSITIONAL PHRASE:A prepositional phrase is a group of words containing a preposition, a noun or pronoun object of the preposition, and any modifiers of the object.
29Example COMMON FRAGMENT TYPES FRAGMENTED SENTENCE: The student sleeping in the back row.COMPLETE SENTENCE: The student was sleeping in the back row.COMMON FRAGMENT TYPESINCOMPLETE VERBS:Incomplete verbs are the past or present participles without the helping verb
30Example COMMON FRAGMENT TYPES FRAGMENTED SENTENCE: I kept working on my essay. Although I was tired.COMPLETE SENTENCE: I kept working on my essay, although I was tired.COMMON FRAGMENT TYPESDEPENDENT CLAUSE:They are group of words that contains a subject and verb but doesn’t express a complete thought because of the beginning word.
31ACTIVITY 1For each of the following, write S on the line if it is a complete sentence. Write F if it is a sentence fragment.___Long, long ago, in a faraway land.___ There lived a princess named Gretchen.___ The most beautiful girl in the land.___ She was still very unhappy.___ Her 21st birthday was approaching.
32ACTIVITY 1For each of the following, write S on the line if it is a complete sentence. Write F if it is a sentence fragment.6. ___ Her twin brother, Prince Reginald, would become king.7. ___ She would have to marry King Jomen of Far Land.8. ___ A very cruel and unkind man.9. ___ She decided to run away and formed an excellent plan.10. ___ The plan required the help of her friends, Grumpy and Happy.
33ACTIVITY 1For each of the following, write S on the line if it is a complete sentence. Write F if it is a sentence fragment.11. ___ They were eager to help, as they did not like the idea of their friend beingunhappy for the rest of her life.12. ___ She disguised herself as a maid and left the palace.13. ___ Unfortunately, her brother saw her and thought she was being kidnapped.14. ___ Set out to rescue her.15. ___ She ran until she reached Near Land.
34ACTIVITY 1For each of the following, write S on the line if it is a complete sentence. Write F if it is a sentence fragment.16. ___ A happy and somewhat silly place full of very silly people.17. ___ When Prince Reginald reached Near Land.18. ___ She agreed to go home when he promised that when he became king, he wouldnot make her marry anybody.
35ANSWER TO ACTIVITY 1Answers: Complete Sentences and Sentence Fragments1. F2. S3. F4. S5. S6. S7. S8. F9. S10. S
36ANSWER TO ACTIVITY 1Answers: Complete Sentences and Sentence Fragments11. S12. S13. S14. F15. S16. F17. F18. S