Presentation on theme: "Latin Grammar The Ablative: New Uses 1. Comparison 2. Degree (measure) of difference The Genitive of Description (Grammar for 4B, pp. 214-15.)"— Presentation transcript:
Latin Grammar The Ablative: New Uses 1. Comparison 2. Degree (measure) of difference The Genitive of Description (Grammar for 4B, pp. 214-15.)
Two New Ablatives Comparatives are forms like fortior = stronger pulchrior = more beautiful stultius = more stupidly Two kinds of ablatives are commonly used with comparatives: 1. Ablative of Comparison. 2. Ablative of degree (or measure) of difference.
Ablative of Comparison Instead of using quam to mean than, you can use the ablative. hoc oppidum est pulchrius quam illud. = hoc oppidum est pulchrius illō. (This town is prettier than that one.) This comes from the true ablative (from). This literally means This town is more beautiful from that one. It is common in languages to use from to express the notion of than.
Ablative of Comparison More examples: haec uia est longior illā. lūna est minor sōle. quis est tē stultior?
Ablative of Degree of Difference (Your book calls this measure of difference, but most people call it degree of difference.) It gives some quantity that modifies a comparative. Marcus est multō stultior. (Marcus is much more stupid = Marcus is [by] much more stupid) This is a use of the “with” ablative. It tells with or by what quantity Marcus is more stupid.
Ablative of Degree of Difference More examples: illud bellum fuit tribus annīs longius. duābus unciīs altior sum. hoc simulācrum est unō pede altior.
Both at Once! Verrēs est multō peior Cicerōne. ea aedis est multīs annīs antiquior fānō
Genitive of Descripton Do you remember the ablative of description? uir magnā uirtūte It turns out that there is also a genitive of description. It can be used instead of the ablative and means the same. uir magnae uirtūtis As with the ablative of description, there must be an adjective.