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A Primer on Multidimensional Clustering for UDB LUW.

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Presentation on theme: "A Primer on Multidimensional Clustering for UDB LUW."— Presentation transcript:

1 A Primer on Multidimensional Clustering for UDB LUW

2 2 The DB2 Optimizer asks him for the best access path. He wrote an improved version of the DB2 Optimizer, using only 9 lines of code. He can type all SQL syntax with 100% accuracy from memory. He taught his dog to prefetch, so that when he throws one ball, the dog returns with 32. He had the "Backspace" and "Delete" keys permanently removed from his keyboard. His sysadmins call him daily to ask if they can give him more disk space. He has never had a Network Security firewall rule refuse him access. On a slow day, he will reorg large tables completely in his mind. He once made an SQL statement run faster just by staring at it. He has never clicked on the “undo” arrow. The DB2 Optimizer asks him for the best access path. He wrote an improved version of the DB2 Optimizer, using only 9 lines of code. He can type all SQL syntax with 100% accuracy from memory. He taught his dog to prefetch, so that when he throws one ball, the dog returns with 32. He had the "Backspace" and "Delete" keys permanently removed from his keyboard. His sysadmins call him daily to ask if they can give him more disk space. He has never had a Network Security firewall rule refuse him access. On a slow day, he will reorg large tables completely in his mind. He once made an SQL statement run faster just by staring at it. He has never clicked on the “undo” arrow. The DB2 Optimizer asks him for the best access path. He wrote an improved version of the DB2 Optimizer, using only 9 lines of code. He can type all SQL syntax with 100% accuracy from memory. He taught his dog to prefetch, so that when he throws one ball, the dog returns with 32. He had the "Backspace" and "Delete" keys permanently removed from his keyboard. His sysadmins call him daily to ask if they can give him more disk space. He has never had a Network Security firewall rule refuse him access. On a slow day, he will reorg large tables completely in his mind. He once made an SQL statement run faster just by staring at it. He has never clicked on the “undo” arrow. The DB2 Optimizer asks him for the best access path. He wrote an improved version of the DB2 Optimizer, using only 9 lines of code. He can type all SQL syntax with 100% accuracy from memory. He taught his dog to prefetch, so that when he throws one ball, the dog returns with 32. He had the "Backspace" and "Delete" keys permanently removed from his keyboard. His sysadmins call him daily to ask if they can give him more disk space. He has never had a Network Security firewall rule refuse him access. On a slow day, he will reorg large tables completely in his mind. He once made an SQL statement run faster just by staring at it. He has never clicked on the “undo” arrow. The DB2 Optimizer asks him for the best access path. He wrote an improved version of the DB2 Optimizer, using only 9 lines of code. He can type all SQL syntax with 100% accuracy from memory. He taught his dog to prefetch, so that when he throws one ball, the dog returns with 32. He had the "Backspace" and "Delete" keys permanently removed from his keyboard. His sysadmins call him daily to ask if they can give him more disk space. He has never had a Network Security firewall rule refuse him access. On a slow day, he will reorg large tables completely in his mind. He once made an SQL statement run faster just by staring at it. He has never clicked on the “undo” arrow.

3 A brief bio… 29 years IT, 19 years of DBA experience o UDB LUW on AIX o DB2/ZOS o Oracle Longest query I ever tuned was over 4 feet long when printed out Favorite saying: “Even a blind squirrel finds a nut once in a while”

4 Agenda What is clustering? What is multidimensional clustering (MDC)? Some design guidelines for MDC

5 Left Outer Join JOIN L TE F

6 Backup back Hint: The most important thing to a DBA

7 Create table in tablespace tablecreatetablespace

8 What is Clustering? Physical sequence of rows in a DB2 table. Determined by defining one index as the “clustering index”. As rows are inserted, DB2 attempts to put them in correct clustering location During Reorg, rows are sorted in clustering order before reloading back into table Is the table clustered or is the index clustered??

9 9 Regular non-clustering indexes Table Index On Region Index on Year

10 10 Clustering Index Table Clustering Index On Region Index on Year

11 11 Why are reads faster when a table is clustered?? The first I/O reads a page into memory which contains many rows with the same key or a range of key values o Example: App needs 500 rows for a given region…. If the DBMS knows that it will need to fetch several or many consecutive pages, then it can begin “prefetching” extents (multiple pages) into memory before application needs it 18 IOs3 IOsvs 1 IO

12 Sequential Prefetch “Holy Grail” when accessing large numbers of rows Significant reduction in I/O Physical reads vs Logical reads Tablespace Page size (bytes) Tablespace Extent size (pages) Tablespace Prefetch size (pages)

13 How UDB uses clustering Sequential prefetch is turned on if UDB determines cost savings Clustered data makes it more likely for sequential prefetch to be turned on Optimizer looks at clusterratio and clusterfactor (on syscat.indexes) Sequential detection can be turned on dynamically during query execution

14 So what’s the shortfall with Clustering? Clustering deteriorates over time (probably) – requiring reorgs Record based indexes with a pointer for every single record, so can become very large in size Only get one choice for the clustering index. If Joe needs the table clustered by timestamp and Bill needs it clustered by policy #, one of them will probably be unhappy.

15 Partitioned Database DA TA BA SE

16 MultiDimensional Clustering Dimensionalclustering

17 MultiDimensional Clustering (MDC) What if your data could be physically sequenced in more than one way at the same time?? Great in theory, but how do you make this happen in real life on a real table??

18 MultiDimensional Clustering Data is physically grouped together by “dimensions” into separate blocks, or extents Each page belongs to exactly one block All blocks are of equal size Tablespace Page size (bytes) Tablespace Extent size (pages) Tablespace Prefetch size (pages)

19 What is an extent? An extent is a set of contiguous data pages on disk, specified at tablespace creation time. Physical size of an extent determined by: o Extent Size (# of pages) o Page Size (kb)

20 Color Year Age Red Blue Green MDC with Three Dimensions

21 What is a (logical) cell? Contains all rows for a unique combination of dimension values Physically made up of one or more blocks (extents) Blocks are only allocated for logical cells which actually have records for a given combination of dimension values

22 Color Year Age Red Blue Green 2002, Red, 1 A “Cell”

23 What is a Slice? A slice is a set of blocks having a particular dimension key.

24 Color Year Age Red Blue Green 2002, Red, 12003, Red, 12004, Red, 1 A Red “Slice” of the Color Dimension

25 Color Year Age Red Blue Green 2004, Red, , Blue, , Green, 1 A 2004 “Slice” of the Year Dimension

26 Color Year Age Red Blue Green 2004, Red, , Blue, , Green, , Red, , Blue, , Green, , Red, , Blue, , Green, 1 A 1 “Slice” of the Age Dimension

27 How MDC works Rows are organized in extents based upon dimensions Dimension Block Index on Color Red Blue Green Dimension Block Index on Year

28 MultiDimensional Clustering MDC introduces indexes that are block-based – much smaller than record-based o A pointer for each block instead of a pointer for each row MDC allows a table to be physically clustered on more than one key or dimension MDC table is able to maintain and guarantee clustering over all dimensions automatically and continuously

29 MDC Indexes A dimension block index is automatically created for each dimension specified A composite block index is automatically created containing all columns across all dimensions Composite index used to maintain clustering Much lower overhead for logging

30 Creating an MDC table Create table t1 (age int, color char(10), year char(4), c1 int, c2 int) organize by dimensions (age, color, year) Three dimension block indexes (one each for age, color and year). A composite block index is also created which includes (age,color, year). Traditional “RID” indexes can also be created on an MDC Can logical AND/OR between BID and RID indexes

31 Color Year Age Red Blue Green 2004, Red, , Blue, , Green, , Red, , Blue, , Green, , Red, , Blue, , Green, 1 Select Processing in MDC (ex #1) Select … From Table Where Age = ‘1’

32 Color Year Age Red Blue Green 2002, Red, 12003, Red, 12004, Red, 1 Select … From Table Where color = ‘Red’ Select Processing in MDC (ex #2)

33 Color Year Age Red Blue Green 2002, Red, 1 Select Processing in MDC (ex #3) Select … From Table Where color = ‘Red’ And Age = 1 And Year = ‘2002’

34 Insert Processing in MDC Probe composite block index to see if this is a new combination of dimensions (new logical cell) If existing, search list of BIDs to look for space to insert row If new logical cell or all blocks full for an existing cell, then create a new block

35 Delete Processing in MDC If the record being deleted is not the last record in block, UDB just deletes the record and removes its RID from any record based indexes If deleting last record in block, UDB frees the block by changing its IN_USE status bit and removing the BID from all block indexes and also remove RID from record based indexes

36 Update Processing in MDC Updates on non-dimension values are done in place just as with regular tables o No need to update block indexes unless no space is found and a new block needs to be added to cell Updates of dimension values are treated as delete/insert o Block indexes will need to be updated

37 MDC Benefits Can cluster in multiple dimensions Clustering is automatically and dynamically maintained over time. Reorg not necessary for re-clustering Block indexes are much smaller and have much less overhead for maintenance and logging

38 Design Guidelines for MDC MDC is great tool But, used incorrectly, can make things worse just as much as it can make things better Requires knowledge of data and data useage by users

39 MDC Design Most important design criteria for MDC is to select proper dimension columns and appropriate exent size Columns that are used in queries as equality or range predicates Low cardinality Desire high density – blocks are mostly full Generally no more than 3 or 4 dimensions

40 MDC Size Considerations At least one extent will be allocated for every unique combination of dimensions in the data Evaluate dimension volumetrics and row size to establish tablespace extent size o Select dimcol1, dimcol2, dimcol3, count(*) from table Example: 8k page size * 32 page extent size gives 256k extent size If you have 1 million unique dimension combinations – minimum table size of 256 GB!!

41 What happens if you choose wrong?? A high cardinality column(s) will explode the size of your table and destroy performance!!! Remember that a block is physically allocated for each unique combination of dimension key values NEVER use a high cardinality column or a unique column for an MDC dimension

42 Down Right Stupid Stupid Choosing a unique column as a dimension is just:

43 Using column expressions with MDC What if a column is a good dimension candidate, but cardinality is way too high (ex: timestamp column) Create table t1 (c1 timestamp, c2 int, c3 int generated always as year(c1)) organize by dimensions (c2, c3) Monotonic – generated column increases/decreases the same as base column A non-monotonic column will only allow equality or IN predicates on the base column to use the block index

44 MDC tables and database partitioning DB2 LUW DPF partitioning is just a way to spread the data across partitions (not range partitioning like DB2/ZOS The reason for partitioning a table is independent of whether the table is an MDC table or a regular table Can partition on a dimension column or a non-dimension column o However, partitioning on a dimension column means that all rows for a particular dimension value exist on only 1 partition If partitioning, remember that logical cells can spread across partitions o Important for sizing of extents

45 Block Index Considerations Composite block index columns are ordered based upon “organize by dimensions” clause Create table t1 (c1 int, c2 int, c3 int, c4 int) organize by dimensions (c1, c4, (c3,c1), c2) o Composite index will be (c1,c4,c3,c2) Create table t1 (c1 int, c2 int, c3 int, c4 int) organize by dimensions (c1, c2, (c3,c1), c4) o Composite index will be (c1,c2,c3,c4)

46 The Customer is always right Everything Else Customer

47

48 To make a long story short

49 Questions???

50


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