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Literary Terms.

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Presentation on theme: "Literary Terms."— Presentation transcript:

1 Literary Terms

2 PLOT The sequence of events in a story.
Plot is also a pattern of actions, events and situations Plot includes exposition exciting force/inciting incident rising action climax falling action denouement

3 Definitions Exposition: opening portion of a narrative or drama, it sets the scene, introduces the main characters, and discloses necessary background Exciting force/inciting incident: sets the action in motion Rising action: part of the narrative, including the exposition, in which events start moving toward a climax. Climax: the turning point, moment of greatest intensity Falling action: the events that follow the climax and bring the story to its conclusion Denouement: resolution or conclusion of narrative

4 Think of the Parts of a Story like a Peak…
Climax Rising Action Falling Action Inciting Incident or Exciting Force Exposition Denouement

5 Exposition: what is established?
Plot of “A&P” Exposition: what is established? Setting Time Place Mood Circumstance

6 Plot of “A&P” Rising Action
Three girls in bathing suits come into the A&P. Watched by Sammy and Stokesie, the girls wander the aisles of the store. The girls come to Sammy’s check-out lane. Store Manager Lengel comes in, sees the girls, and tells them they must be decently dressed to come in. Sammy rings up the girl’s purchase.

7 Plot of “A&P” Climax Sammy quits his job.

8 Plot of “A&P” Falling Action Sammy tells off Lengel.
Lengel tries to reason with Sammy. Sammy turns in his apron and tie and leaves the store.

9 Plot of “A&P” Denouement
In your groups, discuss the denouement. Consider these questions: What will happen to Sammy now? Consider his parents’ reactions. Reread the last line of the story. Now consider again what will happen to Sammy. Do you think Sammy’s decision was a good one or a stupid one? Why?

10 Close reading With your group, discuss the following:
Look at the opening line. What if Updike began with: “Three girls wearing only bathing suits walked in.” How would that change the tone? On page 4, Sammy says “I slid right down her voice into her living room.” What is the effect of this metaphor? Sammy says “Now here comes the sad part of the story.” Is sad the best word to use here? What does this word choice make you think about Sammy?

11 “The Bats” The four elements of setting are:
Time (When does it take place? Think era and time of day/week) Place (Where does it take place?) Mood (What is the overall feeling of the story?) Circumstance (What is going on around the characters in the story? Ex: War, depression, technological era, etc.)

12 CONFLICT Struggle between opposing forces Conflict can be
Internal– person vs. self External Conflict – person vs. person, person vs. nature, person vs. society, man/woman vs. machine, man/woman vs. supernatural.

13 Identify What is the conflict in “A&P”?
What is the conflict in “The Bats”? How do you know? Where in the story do you find it?

14 Symbol An object, character, or event that suggests meanings beyond its literal sense. A symbol adds meaning In fact, a symbol can add multiple meanings

15 So what’s the difference?
How does a symbol differ from a metaphor? A metaphor is a statement that one thing is something else, which, in a literal sense, it is not creates a close association between the two things, underscoring some important similarity between them Examples: Richard is a pig. She’s a doll. “I will speak daggers to her, but use none.” (Hamlet)

16 How can I recognize a symbol?
Symbols are Not abstract terms (love, truth) but perceptible objects Sometimes people and events are symbolic Frequently given particular emphasis (repetition) May supply the title Lead us to the author’s theme

17 Symbolism in “The Bats”
Individually, complete the handout on symbolism. Be prepared to discuss your findings!

18 More symbols What does the silver ring in “The Bats” symbolize?
Make sure you use details from the text to make your case!

19 Examining the climax of “The Bats”
With your group, identify the conflict and climax. Remember the conflict will be _________ vs. _________. the climax will be where the conflict is resolved. Climaxes don’t always resolve the conflict in a positive way. In your group, spend the next 5 minutes discussing why you think Divakaruni (the author) resolves the story in this negative way. Be sure to use the text to back up your response.

20 Protagonist – main character
Antagonist – in conflict with/opposes protagonist

21 Characters static (stay the same) vs. dynamic (change)
flat (one-sided) vs. round (many-sided) major/minor/functional

22 Static, dynamic, round, flat?
Define these characters: Sammy in “A & P” Lengel in “A & P” Queenie in “A & P” Narrator in “The Bats” Mother in “The Bats” Grandpa-uncle in “The Bats”

23 Characterization The techniques a writer uses to create, reveal, or develop the characters in a narrative. Direct: author states directly what a character is like Indirect: reader must infer what a character is like through description, dialogue, action, and how other characters treat him/her Most often, writers reveal/develop characters through what they say (dialogue) and what they do (action). Characters are motivated by desires, temperament and moral character.

24 Point of view The perspective from which a story is told First person
The narrator is “I” and he/she is a participant in the action Third person Narrator is a nonparticipant in the action Omniscient: narrator can move freely through the mind of any character, and has complete knowledge of all the events in the story Limited: the narrator sees into the minds of some, but not all, of the characters; typically, one major or minor character

25 Tone Attitude the author is trying to convey about the subject
Tone is the net result of the various elements the author uses to create the work Tone plays an important role in establishing the reader’s relationship to the characters and ideas

26 Irony Literary device in which the actual meaning is masked by the surface language Three main types of irony: Verbal: say one thing but mean another Situational: something happens that is not what we (or the character) expects Dramatic: the audience knows or understands something that the characters on stage do not

27 What kind of irony is this?
Mrs. Farquar says to Gideon, “When are you going to show us the snake root?” Gideon replies, “But I did show you, missus, have you forgotten?”

28 Techniques Suspense: enjoyable anxiety and/or curiosity about the outcome of an event Foreshadowing: hints at what may happen in a story Flashback: a scene relived in a character’s memory; gives information about something that happened before the current narrative began

29 Theme A generally recurring subject or idea conspicuously evident in a literary work Longer works may have multiple themes The theme is not necessarily a moral or a lesson The theme is the center, the moving force, the unifying vision

30 Try to articulate the theme of
“A & P” “The Bats” “The Bet” “No Witchcraft” “Contents of a Dead Man’s Pocket”

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