2PLOT The sequence of events in a story. Plot is also a pattern of actions, events and situationsPlot includesexpositionexciting force/inciting incidentrising actionclimaxfalling actiondenouement
3DefinitionsExposition: opening portion of a narrative or drama, it sets the scene, introduces the main characters, and discloses necessary backgroundExciting force/inciting incident: sets the action in motionRising action: part of the narrative, including the exposition, in which events start moving toward a climax.Climax: the turning point, moment of greatest intensityFalling action: the events that follow the climax and bring the story to its conclusionDenouement: resolution or conclusion of narrative
4Think of the Parts of a Story like a Peak… ClimaxRising ActionFalling ActionInciting Incident orExciting ForceExpositionDenouement
5Exposition: what is established? Plot of “A&P”Exposition: what is established?SettingTimePlaceMoodCircumstance
6Plot of “A&P” Rising Action Three girls in bathing suits come into the A&P.Watched by Sammy and Stokesie, the girls wander the aisles of the store.The girls come to Sammy’s check-out lane.Store Manager Lengel comes in, sees the girls, and tells them they must be decently dressed to come in.Sammy rings up the girl’s purchase.
8Plot of “A&P” Falling Action Sammy tells off Lengel. Lengel tries to reason with Sammy.Sammy turns in his apron and tie and leaves the store.
9Plot of “A&P” Denouement In your groups, discuss the denouement. Consider thesequestions:What will happen to Sammy now? Consider his parents’ reactions.Reread the last line of the story. Now consider again what will happen to Sammy.Do you think Sammy’s decision was a good one or a stupid one? Why?
10Close reading With your group, discuss the following: Look at the opening line. What if Updike began with: “Three girls wearing only bathing suits walked in.” How would that change the tone?On page 4, Sammy says “I slid right down her voice into her living room.” What is the effect of this metaphor?Sammy says “Now here comes the sad part of the story.” Is sad the best word to use here? What does this word choice make you think about Sammy?
11“The Bats” The four elements of setting are: Time (When does it take place? Think era and time of day/week)Place (Where does it take place?)Mood (What is the overall feeling of the story?)Circumstance (What is going on around the characters in the story? Ex: War, depression, technological era, etc.)
12CONFLICT Struggle between opposing forces Conflict can be Internal– person vs. selfExternal Conflict – person vs. person, person vs. nature, person vs. society, man/woman vs. machine, man/woman vs. supernatural.
13Identify What is the conflict in “A&P”? What is the conflict in “The Bats”?How do you know?Where in the story do you find it?
14SymbolAn object, character, or event that suggests meanings beyond its literal sense.A symbol adds meaningIn fact, a symbol can add multiple meanings
15So what’s the difference? How does a symbol differ from a metaphor?A metaphoris a statement that one thing is something else, which, in a literal sense, it is notcreates a close association between the two things, underscoring some important similarity between themExamples:Richard is a pig.She’s a doll.“I will speak daggers to her, but use none.” (Hamlet)
16How can I recognize a symbol? Symbols areNot abstract terms (love, truth) but perceptible objectsSometimes people and events are symbolicFrequently given particular emphasis (repetition)May supply the titleLead us to the author’s theme
17Symbolism in “The Bats” Individually, complete the handout on symbolism.Be prepared to discuss your findings!
18More symbols What does the silver ring in “The Bats” symbolize? Make sure you use details from the text to make your case!
19Examining the climax of “The Bats” With your group, identify the conflict and climax. Rememberthe conflict will be _________ vs. _________.the climax will be where the conflict is resolved.Climaxes don’t always resolve the conflict in a positive way.In your group, spend the next 5 minutes discussing why you think Divakaruni (the author) resolves the story in this negative way.Be sure to use the text to back up your response.
20Protagonist – main character Antagonist – in conflict with/opposes protagonist
21Characters static (stay the same) vs. dynamic (change) flat (one-sided) vs. round (many-sided)major/minor/functional
22Static, dynamic, round, flat? Define these characters:Sammy in “A & P”Lengel in “A & P”Queenie in “A & P”Narrator in “The Bats”Mother in “The Bats”Grandpa-uncle in “The Bats”
23CharacterizationThe techniques a writer uses to create, reveal, or develop the characters in a narrative.Direct: author states directly what a character is likeIndirect: reader must infer what a character is like through description, dialogue, action, and how other characters treat him/herMost often, writers reveal/develop characters through what they say (dialogue) and what they do (action).Characters are motivated by desires, temperament and moral character.
24Point of view The perspective from which a story is told First person The narrator is “I” and he/she is a participant in the actionThird personNarrator is a nonparticipant in the actionOmniscient: narrator can move freely through the mind of any character, and has complete knowledge of all the events in the storyLimited: the narrator sees into the minds of some, but not all, of the characters; typically, one major or minor character
25Tone Attitude the author is trying to convey about the subject Tone is the net result of the various elements the author uses to create the workTone plays an important role in establishing the reader’s relationship to the characters and ideas
26IronyLiterary device in which the actual meaning is masked by the surface languageThree main types of irony:Verbal: say one thing but mean anotherSituational: something happens that is not what we (or the character) expectsDramatic: the audience knows or understands something that the characters on stage do not
27What kind of irony is this? Mrs. Farquar says to Gideon, “When are you going to show us the snake root?” Gideon replies, “But I did show you, missus, have you forgotten?”
28TechniquesSuspense: enjoyable anxiety and/or curiosity about the outcome of an eventForeshadowing: hints at what may happen in a storyFlashback: a scene relived in a character’s memory; gives information about something that happened before the current narrative began
29ThemeA generally recurring subject or idea conspicuously evident in a literary workLonger works may have multiple themesThe theme is not necessarily a moral or a lessonThe theme is the center, the moving force, the unifying vision
30Try to articulate the theme of “A & P”“The Bats”“The Bet”“No Witchcraft”“Contents of a Dead Man’s Pocket”