Presentation on theme: "SARAH CRAIN - LITERACY COACH HILARY LOFTUS – READING SPECIALIST Get Real!: Teaching Independent."— Presentation transcript:
SARAH CRAIN - LITERACY COACH CRAINSE@STAFFORDSCHOOLS.NET HILARY LOFTUS – READING SPECIALIST LOFTUSHL@STAFFORDSCHOOLS.NET Get Real!: Teaching Independent Reading with Non-Fiction Texts
Virginia Standards of Learning - Reading 6.6 The student will read and demonstrate comprehension of a variety of nonfiction texts. 8.6 The student will read, comprehend, and analyze a variety of nonfiction texts. 10.5 The student will read, interpret, analyze, and evaluate nonfiction texts.
Objectives Participants will be able to: Identify the three main components of a reading lesson and appropriate strategies to use at each stage Examine their metacognative process for constructing meaning from a non-fiction text Integrate skills and strategies discussed into future lesson plans with students Discuss how scaffolding the process for working with expository text can lead to independent student learning
Overview Reading Lesson Before Reading/ Readiness Activate Background Knowledge/ Motivation Preview Vocabulary Establish a Purpose for Reading/ Review Text Structure During Reading/ Interactive Comprehension First Draft Reading Second Draft Reading After Reading/ Reflect & Extend Learning
Motivation and Background Knowledge “To awaken interest and kindle enthusiasm is the sure way to teach easily and successfully.” -Tyron Edwards, American theologian and editor Goals: 1. To focus students’ attention on the topic 2. To arouse curiosity and interest 3. To help them connect to what they already know
Motivation and Background Knowledge Strategy: Value Lines Directions: Consider the following statement: It is necessary to learn algebra.
Vocabulary “The difference between the almost right word and the right word is really a large matter—it's the difference between the lightning bug and the lightning.” Mark Twain, American author Process can be teacher directed, student directed, or a combination of both.
Vocabulary – Teacher Directed Teacher selects 1-5 words that meet the following criteria: 1. The word is essential to the reading and the performance tasks planned for after reading 2. The word is not explained in context 3. The word is not already part of the students’ vocabulary If more than 5 words meet the above criteria, it may indicate that the selected text may be too long or too complex for students to access.
Vocabulary – Teacher Directed Preview the selected words with students by providing at least once sentence which contains sufficient context for the student to infer a correct definition. Example: Mary is good-natured, but her sister is cantankerous. James was so cantankerous at the party that no one wanted to socialize with him.
Vocabulary – Student Directed Students Scan text for new, interesting, unfamiliar words With a partner, try to determine meaning Be able to explain how you arrived at that meaning Teachers Scan the text to anticipate words students will select Consider: High impact/frequency words Content specific vocabulary Any word over three syllables
Vocabulary – Student Directed “Is algebra really necessary?” America’s high schools require all students to take algebra and other advanced math, from geometry through calculus, but for millions, this obstacle course of abstract equations is sheer misery. In many states, testing shows that more than a third of students fail to rate as “proficient” in algebra; teachers tell me that math classes make some students feel stupid, and are a major reason why as many as 30 percent of kids drop out – especially among minorities. “So why do we subject American students to this ordeal?” Rather than force math-avers students to grapple with “vectorial angles and discontinuous functions” that no non- engineer will ever use, why not focus on true “quantitative literacy”? That would mean teaching statistics, budgeting skills, and math used in public and personal life, while removing the “onerous stumbling block” that algebra presents to higher education.
Vocabulary – Student Directed 1. Can I use context clues? Synonyms Antonyms Inferences Definitions 2. Can I use roots or an analogy approach? 3. Can I paraphrase (do I really need to know this specific word to understand the article)?
Text Structure & Setting a Purpose “One should not read to swallow all, but rather see what one has use for.” Henrik Ibsen, Norwegian dramatist
Text Structure & Setting a Purpose Alerts students to be on the lookout for certain key words and /or features Enables students to be more strategic with note taking
Text Structure & Setting a Purpose Today you will be reading a proposition/support (or pro/con) article about whether or not students should be required to study advanced mathematics. As you read, consider your personal experiences and how you relate to the opinions expressed in the article.
Interactive Comprehension “Books had instant replay long before televised sports.” Bert Williams, African American pantomime artist and comedian Goals: 1. Teach students to monitor their thinking and recognize when they are confused 2. Teach students “fix-up” strategies
Interactive Comprehension Strategy: Text Coding How it works: Students mark text with symbols as they read to remind them that something sparked their thinking (they will revisit these codes later).
Interactive Comprehension – Text Coding “Is algebra really necessary?” America’s high schools require all students to take algebra and other advanced math, from geometry through calculus, but for millions, this obstacle course of abstract equations is sheer misery. In many states, testing shows that more than a third of students fail to rate as “proficient” in algebra; teachers tell me that math classes make some students feel stupid, and are a major reason why as many as 30 percent of kids drop out – especially among minorities. “So why do we subject American students to this ordeal?” Rather than force math-avers students to grapple with “vectorial angles and discontinuous functions” that no non- engineer will ever use, why not focus on true “quantitative literacy”? That would mean teaching statistics, budgeting skills, and math used in public and personal life, while removing the “onerous stumbling block” that algebra presents to higher education.
Interactive Comprehension Strategy: Two Column Notes How it works: 1. Divide page into two columns lengthwise 2. Students revisit where they marked the text during first reading 3. Record the quote from the text that they “coded” on the left hand side of the paper 4. On the right hand side of the paper, students write their response to the quote
After Reading/Extend and Reflect “In the end, we retain from our studies only that which we practically apply.” Johann Wolfgang Von Goethe, German playwright
After Reading/Extend and Reflect Short tasks One sentence summary 6 word memoir Write-around conversation Analogies/ metaphors Short reflection using text dependent questions More involved tasks RAFT Political cartoon Comic strip Comparative writing (using a new text) Extended reflection using text dependent questions
Non-Examples of Text Dependent Questions There are tork gooboos of puzballs, including laplies, mushos, and fushos. Even if you bartle the puzballs that tovo inny and onny of the pern, they do not grunto any lipples. In order to geemee a puzball that gruntos lipples, you should bartle the fusho who has rarckled the parshtootoos after her humply fluflu. 1. How many gooboos of puzballs are there? 2. What are laplies, mushos, and fushos? 3. Even if you bartle the puzballs that tovo inny and onny of the pern, what will they not do? 4. How can you geemee a puzball that gruntos lipples?
Extended Reflection: Text Dependent Questions Consider the meme on the left. How would the speakers in paragraphs one and two interpret this meme? What would be similar about their responses? Different? Use examples from the text to support your claims.
References Brozo, W. G. and Simpson, M. L. (2007). Content literacy for today’s adolescents: Honoring diversity and building competence. 5th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson and Merrill/Prentice Hall Daniels, H. S. and Steineke, N. (2011). Texts and lessons for content-area reading. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann Gallagher, K. (2004). Deeper reading: Comprehending challenging texts, 4- 12. Portland, ME: Stenhouse Nuebert, G. A. and Wilkins, E. A. (2004). Putting it all together: The directed reading lesson in the secondary content classroom. Boston, MA: Pearson Tovani, C. (2000). I read it but I don’t get it: Comprehension strategies for adolescent readers. Portland, ME: Stenhouse
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