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Parallel Structure Consistent Patterns in Writing.

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Presentation on theme: "Parallel Structure Consistent Patterns in Writing."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Parallel Structure Consistent Patterns in Writing

3 Which of the following doesn’t belong? ImagesWords RunHiking SwimJump

4 Think about your math class… What does it mean to be parallel?

5 What is parallel structure? Creating sentences in which elements that are alike in function are also alike in construction. Functions: words, infinitives, phrases, clauses In other words… all parts of a sentence should be equal (or parallel).

6 Alike in function: WordsInfinitives Dancing Crying Doughnuts Coffee Funny Athletic Quickly Quietly To sing To dance Prepositional phrases Since they know me Because I care Subordinate clauses Over the river Through the woods

7 Which is alike in function? Jumping To play Kidding Joke

8 Which is alike in function? Under the desk Since I understand Because I need to know In the house

9 So a non-parallel sentence looks like this: The students in Miss Ondrof’s class,, and. OR The students in Miss Ondrof’s class do their homework, ace their tests, and are never complaining.

10 And a parallel sentence looks like this: The students in Miss Ondrof’s class,, and. OR The students in Miss Ondrof’s class do their homework, ace their tests, and never complain.

11 Parallel Structure in the Real World LifeLiterature “At these moments, America has carried on not simply because those in high office have displayed skill or vision, but because we the people have remained faithful to the ideals of our forebears and true to our founding documents.” - Barack Obama, 2009 Inaugural Address “She was dressed to play golf, and I remember thinking she looked like a good illustration, her chin raised a little, jauntily, her hair the color of an autumn leaf, her face the same brown tint as the fingerless glove on her knee.” - The Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald

12 Different Uses of Parallel Structure Coordinating conjunctions Lists/Series Comparisons Linking verbs Correlative conjunctions

13 Coordinating conjunctions One way parallel structure is used is when sentence elements are joined by coordinating conjunctions. Coordinating conjunctions = and, but, or, etc.

14 Examples WordsInfinitives Miss Ondrof asked us to work quickly but quietly. In English we always have to read and write. She likes to talk but not to listen. On vacation, I like to eat at fancy restaurants and to visit exciting places.

15 Examples PhrasesClauses I’ll probably find my car keys somewhere obvious, like on my desk or in my pocket. Once they get their grades, students’ essays usually go in the garbage or to the back of their folders. We wondered who he was and what he was doing here. I broke the news to the family since they know me and because I care.

16 Application Which is parallel? ▫She returned to pay the rent and because she had left some of her things. ▫She returned to pay the rent and to pick up some of her things. Revise: Cockroaches will eat anything, but they especially like sweet foods and food that is starchy.

17 Lists/Series A second way parallel structure is used is with elements in a list or series. Series of: ▫Words ▫Infinitives ▫Prepositional phrases ▫Subordinate clauses

18 Examples WordsInfinitives She wanted three things: money, power, and cake. He played tennis, shot archery, and ran in gym class. There was no opportunity for me to do my homework, to ask for an extension, or to make up an excuse. PhrasesClauses After the food fight, he found mashed potatoes in his hair, on his shirt, and behind his ear. The Backstreet Boys don’t care who you are, where you’re from, or what you did, as long as you love them.

19 Application Which is parallel? ▫The frustrated customer wanted to exchange the item, to obtain a refund, or she wanted to speak to the manager. ▫The frustrated customer wanted to exchange the item, to obtain a refund, or to speak to the manager. Revise: Bruce Wayne enjoys donning his Batman costume, when the Commissioner calls him, and to save Gotham City from cruel villains like the Joker.

20 Practice A.During class, Samuel spent his time flirting with Brittney, eating candy, and doodling on the assignment sheet. B.During class, Samuel spent his time flirting with Brittney, he ate candy, and doodling on the assignment sheet. C.During class, Samuel spent his time to flirt with Brittney, to eat candy, and doodling on the assignment sheet. A.During class, Samuel spent his time flirting with Brittney, eating candy, and doodling on the assignment sheet. B.During class, Samuel spent his time flirting with Brittney, he ate candy, and doodling on the assignment sheet. C.During class, Samuel spent his time to flirt with Brittney, to eat candy, and doodling on the assignment sheet.

21 Practice A.Alex looked everywhere for his math book— under the bed, on his desk, and he searched inside the refrigerator. B.Alex looked everywhere for his math book— viewing under the bed, searching on his desk, and inside the refrigerator. C.Alex looked everywhere for his math book— under the bed, on his desk, and inside the refrigerator. A.Alex looked everywhere for his math book— under the bed, on his desk, and he searched inside the refrigerator. B.Alex looked everywhere for his math book— viewing under the bed, searching on his desk, and inside the refrigerator. C.Alex looked everywhere for his math book— under the bed, on his desk, and inside the refrigerator.

22 Practice A.After giving Jeremy her phone number, Felicia had to tolerate his stupid, late-night conversations and his constant requests for her math homework. B.After giving Jeremy her phone number, Felicia had to tolerate his stupid, late night calls and the fact that he constantly requested her math homework. C.After giving Jeremy her phone number, Felicia had to tolerate being woken up late at night for stupid conversations and he constantly requested her math homework. A.After giving Jeremy her phone number, Felicia had to tolerate his stupid, late-night conversations and his constant requests for her math homework. B.After giving Jeremy her phone number, Felicia had to tolerate his stupid, late night calls and the fact that he constantly requested her math homework. C.After giving Jeremy her phone number, Felicia had to tolerate being woken up late at night for stupid conversations and he constantly requested her math homework.

23 Practice A.The manager wanted staff who arrived on time, smiled at the customers, and didn’t snack on the chicken nuggets. B.The manager wanted staff who arrived on time, would be smiling at the customers, and would not be snacking on the chicken nuggets. C.The manager wanted staff who arrived on time, smiled at the customers, and no snacking on the chicken nuggets. A.The manager wanted staff who arrived on time, smiled at the customers, and didn’t snack on the chicken nuggets. B.The manager wanted staff who arrived on time, would be smiling at the customers, and would not be snacking on the chicken nuggets. C.The manager wanted staff who arrived on time, smiled at the customers, and no snacking on the chicken nuggets.

24 Practice My ambition is to become a doctor and _________ in surgery. A.specializing B.to specialize C.being specialized D.specialized My ambition is to become a doctor and _________ in surgery. A.specializing B.to specialize C.being specialized D.specialized

25 Practice During our vacation in the Bahamas, we hope __________ and to dance ourselves dizzy at reggae clubs. A.that we eat delicious seafood B.that eating delicious seafood occurs C.to eat delicious seafood D.eating delicious seafood During our vacation in the Bahamas, we hope __________ and to dance ourselves dizzy at reggae clubs. A.that we eat delicious seafood B.that eating delicious seafood occurs C.to eat delicious seafood D.eating delicious seafood

26 Practice Karen wished Ray chewed with his mouth closed, for otherwise he was everything she wanted in a date; he was tall, intelligent, and __________. A.he looked good B.being good looking C.one handsome man to look at D.handsome Karen wished Ray chewed with his mouth closed, for otherwise he was everything she wanted in a date; he was tall, intelligent, and __________. A.he looked good B.being good looking C.one handsome man to look at D.handsome

27 Practice The coach told his team ________________ but not to eat too much. A.that they should get a lot of sleep B.to get a lot of sleep C.sleep a lot D.they are sleeping a lot The coach told his team __________________ but not to eat too much. A.that they should get a lot of sleep B.to get a lot of sleep C.sleep a lot D.they are sleeping a lot

28 Complete the following sentences using parallel structure: Students like to sleep, relax, and ___________ during their summer vacations. He went to the store to pick up a carton of milk and two _____________. Food, shelter, and ___________ are all I need to survive on a deserted island. _____________ is much better than a visit to dentist.

29 Comparing/Contrasting Elements A third time when we use parallel structure is when we compare things. For example: ______ than, as ______ as, etc.

30 Examples WordsInfinitives Coffee is better than tea.I like to play board games just as much as I like to watch movies. PhrasesClauses It is better to swim in the pool than in the ocean. How you live your life is just as important as how much money you make.

31 Application: Which is parallel? ▫This assignment was much easier for Miss Ondrof than it was for me. ▫This assignment was much easier for Miss Ondrof than me. Revise: A good ending is more important than a beginning that is good.

32 Linking Verbs A fourth way to use parallel structure is with elements joined by a linking verb or a verb of being. Linking verbs = become, seem, feel, means Forms of “to be” = is, am, being, was, has been, etc.

33 Examples Linking verbsForms of “to be” Being Miss Ondrof’s student means having to put up with zombie references. The path over the river seems quicker than the one through the woods. To know her is to love her. What you see is what you get. What she said is not what she meant.

34 Application: Which is parallel? ▫Being Jim’s friend means being constantly alert. ▫Being Jim’s friend means you are alert. Revise: To succeed is opening a new opportunity.

35 Correlative Conjunctions The fifth and final way to use parallel structure is when you use elements joined by a correlative conjunction. Correlative conjunctions = either/or, neither/nor, both/and, & not only/but also

36 Examples: Either/OrNeither/Nor Miss Ondrof told her to either put the food away or share with the teacher. The student was neither going to class nor doing his assignments. Both/AndNot only/But also I would like both to buy a new house and to purchase a new car. I would like to buy both a new house and a new car. She hopes not only to travel to London this summer, but also to move there later on. Many people not only have full time jobs, but also have part time jobs.

37 Application: Which sentence is correct? ▫Bob was not only Sam’s roommate, but also he was his best friend. ▫Bob was not only Sam’s roommate but also his best friend. Revise: My dog not only likes to play fetch, but also chase cars.

38 Where is the parallel structure? At these moments, America has carried on not simply because those in high office have displayed skill or vision, but because we the people have remained faithful to the ideals of our forebears and true to our founding documents. Barack Obama, 2009 Inaugural Address

39 Where is the parallel structure? At these moments, America has carried on not simply because those in high office have displayed skill or vision, but because we the people have remained faithful to the ideals of our forebears and true to our founding documents. Barack Obama, 2009 Inaugural Address

40 Where is the parallel structure? She was dressed to play golf, and I remember thinking she looked like a good illustration, her chin raised a little, jauntily, her hair the color of an autumn leaf, her face the same brown tint as the fingerless glove on her knee. The Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald

41 Where is the parallel structure? She was dressed to play golf, and I remember thinking she looked like a good illustration, her chin raised a little, jauntily, her hair the color of an autumn leaf, her face the same brown tint as the fingerless glove on her knee. The Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald

42 Identify errors in parallel structure: “To assess your effectiveness as a writer, consider whether your writing does the following. It should convey your message with clarity, emphasis, precision, and style. It uses variety in sentence structure for good stylistic effect. It provides organized, coherent, logical, insightful development of the subject. It supports your main points with specific, detailed, compelling examples and illustrations. You commit no significant errors in grammar, usage, spelling, or punctuation.”

43 Apply to your own writing: Go back and look at your thesis and any other writing you’ve completed for your essay. Make sure there are no errors in parallel structure. If there are, revise them accordingly.


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