Presentation on theme: "The Yellow Press and The Spanish American War. Yellow Press Started with dueling newspapers led by William Randolph Hearst (New York Journal) and Joseph."— Presentation transcript:
The Yellow Press and The Spanish American War
Yellow Press Started with dueling newspapers led by William Randolph Hearst (New York Journal) and Joseph Pulitzer (New York World) in a circulation battle – they both used sensationalized front page headlines/pictures to sell more papers & would publish (largely untrue) stories to excite public opinion. Think Tabloid Headlines The Yellow Kid, a popular comic strip character printed by both papers in the 1890’s, when this Circulation battle was in full swing…thus the term “yellow journalism”
Nasty little printer's devils spewing forth from the Hoe press in this Puck Magazine cartoon of 1888 Invented by American Richard Hoe in 1860, the Hoe press was a high speed printing press in the late 19th century that made possible large circulation newspapers and magazines at low cost.
Can you think of any sensationalist headlines that you have seen recently?
Jingoism In 1898, this sense of aggressive nationalism was fueled by America’s hurt pride over an insulting letter written by the Spanish Ambassador (Dupuy de Lome), which called President McKinley “weak and stupid”, and which was leaked to the press by Cuban rebels (and published by Hearst in the Journal). Extreme patriotism in the form of aggressive foreign policy. In practice, it is a country's advocation of the use of threats or actual force against other countries in order to safeguard what it perceives as its national interests
Spanish-American War: Causes 1895 Rebellion in Cuba for Independence was met with atrocities by the Spanish general, Valeriano Weyler (and 150,000 Spanish soldiers) – Many Americans sympathized with revolutionaries of Cuba (and many were very worried about US economic interests in Cuba) Yellow Press sensationalist reporting of Spanish atrocities in Cuba and Jingoism (ie. Spain’s ambassador’s letter) fueled the fire… The Destruction of the USS Maine: Americans thought the Spanish had blown it up….
The Maine Explodes USS Maine explodes in Havana Harbor on February 15, 1898 Spanish mine (thus Spain) is officially blamed in March, 1898 Later investigations will show the cause as an accident on board the ship.
Hearst's treatment in the Journal focused on the enemy who set the bomb — and offered a huge reward to readers Pulitzer's treatment in the World emphasized a horrible explosion
Events of the War President McKinley delivers a “War Message to” Congress, urging The Senate to okay US intervention in Cuban rebellion… Congress responds with the Teller Amendment What began as a war over Cuba, however, turns into an American campaign to strip Spain of its overseas colonies…America takes the Philippines from Spain in a huge and swift victory. Americans beat the Spanish in Cuba, concluding, the “Splendid Little War”
Teddy Roosevelt and the Rough Riders Theodore Roosevelt organizes a company of cavalry, the Rough Riders, who volunteer for the war. TR wins fame at a couple of famous battles and becomes a war hero. Main reason that he becomes the Vice President in 1900
Treaty of Paris Ended the conflict with Spain. Gave the US the Philippines as a territory for 20 million – but this led to a Filipino insurrection vs. US to get independence- took US 3 yrs and thousands of lives to put the insurrection down. Spain gave up control of Cuba (The US did not claim Cuba, as per the Teller Amendment, but did make Cuba a Sphere of Influence with the Platt Amendment) US got Puerto Rico and island of Guam as territories.
Teller Amendment: US will not take over Cuba in the event of victory (actually signed by Congress before the Spanish- American War, as part of the US declaration of war) Platt Amendment: in the post-war Cuban Constitution: –Cuba may not independently sign treaties - only with US consent. –The United States may interfere in Cuba’s politics whenever they choose “to preserve Cuba’s law and order.” –Cuba may not build up excessive debt –US may maintain naval bases in Cuba, including Guantanamo Bay
ENTRY # 31 In your own words… Why did the United States fight a war with Spain in the 1890s?