6What is assessment of student learning? The systematic collection of information about student learning, using the time, knowledge, expertise, and resources available, in order to inform decisions about how to improve learning (Barbara E. Walvoord, Assessment Clear and Simple)
7In other words… We identify learning outcomes We design ways to measure the learningWe provide learning opportunitiesWe gather, analyze, and interpret evidence to determine how well learning matches our expectationsWe use the results to understand and improve student learning
8Good learning outcomes… Provide a framework for course developmentCommunicate expectations to studentsEnable assessment of student learningHelp evaluate student workProvide information to non-student stakeholders
9Learning outcomes…What a student should be able to do or know as a result of having completed a particular course or programSample learning outcome:Students who successfully complete Tennis 101 will demonstrate skill proficiency in accurately serving a tennis ball
10Identifying learning outcomes Upon successful completion of the course, students will appreciate the pig (Example from Barbara Walvoord and Ginny Anderson’s book, Effective Grading — Swine Management Class)
11A learning outcome should contain A description of what the student should be able to do or knowThe conditions under which the student will be able to do the taskThe measurable standards for evaluating student performance of the taskAfter completing this course you will be able to:operate your phoneknow how to greet callersunderstand the procedure for transferring a call
12After completing this course you will be able to: place a caller on holdactivate the speaker phoneplay new messages on the voice mail systemlist the three elements of a proper phone greetingtransfer a call to a requested extensionAfter completing this course you will be able to:operate your phoneknow how to greet callersunderstand the procedure for transferring a call
13Student learning outcomes expressed using verbs related to Bloom’s taxonomy can become the foundation for the selection and design of classroom activities, assignments and tests
14Bloom’s Taxonomy and the 3 Domains of Learning CognitiveMental knowledge and skillsLearning information and processes for dealing with that informationPsychomotorManual or physical skillsAffectiveHow we deal with emotionsLearning beliefs, attitudes, and valuesBloom’s Taxonomy and the 3 Domains of Learning
15Steps for writing learning outcomes using the domains of learning Decide which domain appliesSelect an action verb that specifies what the student should be able to know or do and that can be assessedMake sure that the statement includes the conditions under which the student will be able to do the task as well as criteria for evaluation
18Knowledge is the ability to memorize and recall existing terminology, facts, and methods Comprehension is the ability to understand the meaning of conceptual informationApplication is the ability to apply or use previously learned information in a new situationAnalysis is the ability to examine a concept and break it down into its partsSynthesis is the ability to put information together in a unique or novel way to solve a problemEvaluation is the ability to judge the relative value of information based on prior knowledgeLow levelHigh level
19Verbs used for cognitive domain RecallRestateSequenceInvestigateSystematizeReciteReviewSketchObserveTheorizeRecognizeSelectSolveOrderWriteRecordTransformUseOutsideRepeatTranslateReproduceStateTabulateTellTraceUnderlineKnowledgeComprehensionApplicationAnalysisSynthesisEvaluationAcquireAbstractApplyAdvertiseArgueAppraiseArrangeAssociateCalculateAnalyzeBuildAssessAssembleClassifyCarry outBreakdownComposeCheckChooseComprehendComputeCatalogConcludeCiteConvertDemonstrateConstructCriticizeCountDetermineCompareDeriveDefendDefineDiscussDramatizeContrastDesignDistinguishDrawDetectEvaluateEstimateEmployFormulateJudgeFindExplainDifferentiateGeneralizeJustifyIdentifyExtrapolateDiscoverIntegrateMeasureIndicateImplementDiscriminateOrganizeRankItemizeIllustrateInstructDissectPlanLabelOperateProduceSupportListInterpretPerformProposeTestNameLocatePlanExamineRelateVerifyPredictExploreWeighPointReportPrepareSpecifyQuoteRepresentRepairSummarizeVerbs used for cognitive domain
21Receiving relates to getting, holding, and directing the student’s attention and whether the student is “open” to learningResponding involves active participation on the part of the learnersValuing involves the student seeing worth or value in the learning--Clues to valuing are expressed in the student’s overt behaviorOrganizing involves arranging values into priorities by contrasting different values, resolving conflicts between them, and creating a unique value system (comparing, relating, and synthesizing values)Internalizing values is demonstrated when the student has a value system that controls his/her behavior as a learnerLow levelHigh level
23Psychomotor domainThis domain includes physical movement, coordination, and use of large and small motor skillsDevelopment of these skills requires practice and is measured in terms of speed, precision, distance, procedures, or techniques in executionNote:Bloom never completed work on this domainMany models have been developedThis section is based on Dave’s model (Dave, R. H. (1975). Developing and Writing Behavioural Outcomes. (R J Armstrong, ed.) Educational Innovators Press)
25Low levelHigh levelImitation is the ability to observe the action of another person, such as the teacher or trainer, and copy the actionManipulation is the ability to follow instructions and reproduce an activity from instruction or from memoryPrecision is the ability to execute a skill reliably, independent of help from the instructor or demonstrate an activity or skill to other learnersArticulation is the ability to combine or integrate related skillsNaturalization occurs when the skill becomes automatic or internalized
27We design or select learning activities to achieve our outcomes Students should be able to reasonably achieve the learning outcomes by completing these activities.Choose activities that align with and support the learning outcomes.
28Course grades versus assessment I grade, therefore I assessCourse grades tell students how they did in the class relative to other students and convey to students how well they have met their teachers’ expectationsThe assignment of a grade to an individual student provides a summary measure about the student’s performance in the classMay tell something about the standards of the teacherCourse grades do NOT usuallyConvey direct information about which of the course’s goals and outcomes for learning have been met or how well they have been met
29You can use the grading process to measure learning Ensure that the activity, exam or assignment actually measures the learning goal(s)The outcome is to be able to "write a persuasive essay" but the assessment is a multiple choice testState explicitly in writing the criteria for evaluating student work in sufficient detail to identify students’ strengths and weaknessesUse rubrics
30The advantages of using rubrics… Allow assessment to be more outcome and consistentFocus the teacher to clarify his/her criteria in specific termsClearly show the student how their work will be evaluated and what is expectedPromote student awareness of about the criteria to use in assessing peer performanceProvide useful feedback regarding the effectiveness of the instructionProvide benchmarks against which to measure and document progress
31Scoring rubric for tennis serve Excellent(2 points)Acceptable(1 point)Poor(0 points)AccuracyHits target area at least 80% of the timeHits target area about 50%-80% of the timeHits target area less than 50% of the timeEffortPuts forth good effort and tries to serve correctlyShows moderate interest in learning how to serveShows little or no interest in learning the correct way of serving
32Class participation rubric 321Participates in class discussionsAlmostAlwaysOccasionallyNeverAsks relevant questions in classAlmost NeverParticipates in online discussionOffers questions or comments viaAttends classArrives on time/stays for entire class
33Evidence and the feedback loop are very important Develop systematic ways of feeding information about student learning back to decision makers to use for program improvementEvidence via assessment is more fundamental than ever to knowing students are learning what they need to learn, to ensuring student learning is central at our institutions, and to demonstrating higher education’s effectiveness to the public and othersAssessment is not about amassing data, but rather about analyzing and using it to make a difference in student learning
34The Higher Learning Commission cares about… Are students learning what you intended for them to learn?What is the evidence that teaching is effective?The organization’s goals for student learning outcomes are clearly stated for each educational program and make effective assessment possibleThe organization’s ongoing evaluation and assessment processes provide reliable evidence of institutional effectiveness that clearly informs strategies for continuous improvementWhat do you most want your students to learn during their time with you? To get from their whole experience at your institution?What are they actually learning?Is it the right learning? Right level? (effective for what and for whom?)What difference do you want to make in their lives? What difference does that make to society? To their profession?What evidence do you have that you’re worth the investment? That they achieve the learning intended?
35How are your stated student learning outcomes appropriate to your mission, programs, and degrees? What evidence do you have that students achieve your stated learning outcomes?In what ways do you analyze and use evidence of student learning?How do you ensure shared responsibility for student learning & assessment of student learning?How do you evaluate and improve the effectiveness of your efforts to assess and improve student learning?
36Minute Paper (Angelo, T. A. & Cross, K. P Minute Paper (Angelo, T. A. & Cross, K.P. Classroom Assessment Techniques: A Handbook for College Teachers, 2nd edition. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1993, pp )What was the most useful or meaningful thing you learned during this session?What question(s) remain uppermost in your mind as we end this session?