2 Announcements Midterm Reminder Final paper Grades on Blackboard 10% of your grade is for participationFinal paperGuidelines are on BlackboardDue on May 13 before classSubmit on Blackboard (or )In Word (not pdf)
3 HomeworkConstruct a fill-in-the-blanks exercise for teaching contractions/blendingsForm groups of three, and try out your exercise on your two fellow studentsWhich items (blanks) worked well?Which items didn’t work that well? Why? What changes do you suggest?
4 Interfaces, or How pronunciation is involved in other parts of language knowledge and skills Listening: perceptionGrammarOrthography (spelling)Today
5 Phonology and grammarA morpheme may be pronounced differently depending on its phonological environment (morphophonology)E.g., past tense -edPronunciation problems can affect grammarMorphemes (regular and irregular forms)Word classes (nouns vs. verbs)Pronunciation needs to be addressed in the grammar lesson
6 Phonology and regular morphemes English has 8 regular morphological inflections-sPlural nounsPossessiveThird-person singular present tense-edPast tensePast participle / passivePresent participle: -ingComparative degree: -erSuperlative degree: -est-s and -ed change depending on the phonological environment;-ing, -er, and -est don’t change
7 -s morphemes Remember the rules Examples: Note: Pronunciation of all three morphemes is the same, even if the spelling isn’tRemember the rulesExamples:/z/ /s/ /əz/boys boats buses (plurals)sees makes uses (3rd sg verb)Marvin’s Mike’s Rose’s (possessive)/z/ is the basic form (after vowels and voiced consonants)/z/ becomes /s/ after voiceless consonants/z/ becomes /əz/ after sibilantsSibilants: /s/, /z/, /ʃ/, /ʒ/, /ʧ/, /ʤ/
8 -s morphemes Possessive of regular plural nouns The girl’s book vs. The girls’ bookThe pronunciation is the samePossessive of irregular plural nounsMen’s clothing, children’s toys’s is added to the irregular plural formThe same rules apply for contractions of is, has and does/z/ His name’s John/s/ It’s raining(/əz/ Rich’s sick)
9 Teaching -s morphemesUsually these three morphemes are not presented simultaneouslyStudents should be reminded of the rules of the previously introduced morphemeGo through the five stagesConsciousness raising(Listening discrimination):Instead: e.g., fill-in-the-blanks with spoken textControlled practiceGuided practiceCommunicative practice
10 Which allomorph? Plural allomorphs: Past tense allomorphs: Do you hear /z/, /s/ or /əz/?Past tense allomorphs:Do you hear /d/, /t/ or /əd/?
11 Regular past tense -ed Give examples; describe the rules What is the basic form?When does the form change, and why?What other verb forms have –ed?What activities do you propose for each of the five stages, and why?What difficulties may arise when you develop an activity, e.g., should you avoid certain verbs?
13 -edExamples:/d/ /t/ /əd/cried walked chattedrobbed kissed added/d/ is the basic form (after vowels and voiced consonants)/d/ becomes /t/ after voiceless consonants/d/ becomes /əd/ after /t/ and /d/
14 Teaching -edRelevant for simple past, present/past perfect, and passiveSimilar to teaching –sGo through the five stepsConsciousness raising(Listening discrimination):Instead: e.g., fill-in-the-blanks with spoken textControlled, guided, communicative practiceCaveat: Many highly frequent verbs are irregular (was, had, did, made, …)Make sure the exercises elicit regular verbs
15 More morphophonology -ing (progressive, gerunds) -er and –est (comparatives, superlatives)Irregular forms (nouns, verbs)Part-of-speech alternations
16 -ing -ing is used for progressive participles walking, reading, studying-ing can be pronounced as -in’Ain’t misbehavin’Depends on formality and on the speakerDoes not depend on the phonological environment
17 -er and -est-er and -est have the same meaning as more and most (periphrastic forms)-er/more -est/mostbig bigger biggest*more big *most bigbeautiful more beautiful most beautiful*beautifuller *beautifullestWhen to use -er and -est, and when more and most?There are rules, but they’re not as strict as for -s and -edWhat rules do you know? (see next slide)
18 -er and -est Hint: The morphology has to do with the phonology What rules for -er/-est vs. more/most?big – bigger – biggestsmall – smaller – smallesthappy – happier – happiestfriendly – friendlier – friendliestnarrow – narrower – narrowestcurious – more curious – most curiousslowly – more slowly – most …independent – more …– most …tender – more … – most … (tenderer/tenderest?)stupid – more stupid – most stupidstupider?stupidest?handsome – more handsome – most handsomehandsomer?handsomest?Try to think of more examples
19 Or: more / most friendly -er/-est vs. more/most-er/-estOne-syllable wordsbig – bigger – biggestsmall – smaller – smallestlarge – larger – largestTwo-syllable words that end in –yhappy – happier – happiestMany two-syllable adjectives that end in unstressed –ly, -ow, or –lefriendly – friendlier – friendliestnarrow – narrower – narrowestgentle – gentler – gentlestOr: more / most friendly
20 -er/-est vs. more/most more/most Many two-syllable adverbs ending in -lyslowly – more slowly – most slowlyOther two-syllables adjectives and adverbscurious – more curious – most curiousAdjectives and adverbs of three or more syllablesindependent – more independent – most independent
21 -er/-est vs. more/most Depends on formality Variable cases Two-syllables adjectives that end in –er or –uretender – more tender – most tendertender – tenderer – tenderestTwo-syllable adjectives that end in a weakly stressed vowel, with final /d/ or /t/stupid – more stupid – most stupidstupid – stupider – stupidestTwo-syllable adjectives that end in weakly stressed -somehandsome – more handsome – most handsomehandsome – handsomer – handsomestTwo-syllable adjectives that end in a weakly stressed vowel, with final /d/ or /t/: also quiet
22 Teaching comparative and superlative forms Don’t introduce all rules at onceThis will overwhelm the studentStart with the clearest, most basic rulesOne-syllable words get -er/-estTwo-syllable words in -y get -er/-estLonger words (three or more syllables) get more/mostGive a lot of examplesWhen there are many rules and exceptions, it’s often easier to learn by analogy to examples
23 Why is “curiouser” not “good English”? What rule did Alice forget?
24 -er/-est or more/most? And why? shortnoisysimplepersonalizedstylishcostlyfabulousquietcarefulappealingeasilypaleperfect-er/-estmore/mosteithernone!one syllabletwo syllables, -ytwo syllables, -le≥ 3 syllablestwo syllables, othertwo syllables, -lytwo syllabes, -t/-dcan’t get better than perfect
25 Irregular forms: Nouns Some irregular forms come from Latin and Greekcriterion – criteria; datum – dataOther irregular forms have a Germanic originVowel changefoot – feet; man – menThis is still used in modern GermanMann – Männer (“man” – “men”)f/v alternationleaf – leaves; wife – wives; shelf – shelvesHistorically /f/ became /v/ between two vowels (when the ‘e’ in leaves, wives, shelves was still pronounced)θ/ð alternationbath/baths; truth/truths (θ in singular, ð in plural)
26 Irregular forms: Verbs Two very frequent verbsbe: am/is/are – was/were – beengo: go – went – goneOther frequent, irregular verbs have recognizable patternsE.g., /ɪ-æ-ʌ/ patternsing – sang – sung; begin – began – begunThese patterns are remnants of older rulesStudents can use these regularities to learn the verb forms
27 Irregular forms: Verbs Some examples: verbs that get or have -t / -d (‘weak verbs’)/d/ => /t/build – built – built; send – sent – sentno changelet – let – let; hit – hit – hit/iy/ + /d/ => /ɛ/ + /t/creep – crept – creptleave – left – leftVowel shortening (/iy/ => /ɛ/; /ay/ => /ɪ/)feed – fed – fed; slide – slid – slidAnd more…
28 Irregular forms: Verbs Some examples: vowel change (‘strong verbs’)Three different vowelssing – sang – sung; begin – began – begunSame vowel in past and past participledig – dug – dug; win – won – won/ay/ - /ow/ - /ɪ/ + -endrive – drove – driven; write – wrote – writtenVowel change in past tense onlyrun – ran – run; come – came – comeAnd more…
29 Teaching irregular forms Don’t present all rules at onceThis will overwhelm the studentsPresent exceptions, and a few rulesam/is/are – was/were – been; go – went – gone/ɪ-æ-ʌ/ pattern: sing – sang – sung/d/ => /t/: send – sent – sentno change: hit – hit – hitGive a lot of examplesWhen there are many rules and exceptions, it’s often easier to learn by analogyWhen students memorize the forms, they will discover some of the patterns on their own
30 Part-of-speech alternations Remember:Sometimes, nouns and verbs have a different stress patternCONDUCT (n) vs. conDUCT (v)REBel (n) vs. reBEL (v)Note: this is not a rule, just a pattern for some wordsThere are other systematic differences between nouns and verbs as well...
31 Part-of-speech alternations /s/-/z/, /θ/-/ð/, /f/-/v/ alternations between nouns and verbsnoun verbuse/use /yuws/ /yuwz/loss/lose /lɑs/ /luwz/advice/advise /ədvays/ /ədvayz/teeth/teethe /tiyθ/ /tiyð/life/live /layf/ /lɪv/proof/prove /pruwf/ /pruwv/Remember: Voicing of consonants affects the length of the preceding vowel
32 Part-of-speech alternations No stress vs. light stressDUplicate (n) vs. DUpliCATE (v)/ət/ /eyt/Location of stressCONDUCT (n) vs. conDUCT (v)PROJECT (n) vs. proJECT (v)Remember: No stress vs. light/strong stress affects vowel reductionCan you think of more examples?
33 Teaching part-of-speech alternations Don’t present all rules at onceThis will overwhelm the studentsPresent a few rulesadvice/advise; life/liveDUplicate (n) vs. DUpliCATE (v)CONDUCT (n) vs. conDUCT (v)Give a lot of examplesWhen there are many rules and exceptions, it’s often easier to learn by analogyCaveat: Don’t assume students know either the correct pronunciation or the part of speech of any of these words
34 Teaching phonology and grammar Address pronunciation as soon as these grammar items are introducedPronunciation (and perception) of past tense, plural, possessive, etc. should be an integral part of the grammar lessonStudents need to be able to hear the affixes and stress patterns correctly, so they can learn from the inputStudents need to be able to pronounce the suffixes and stress patterns correctlyRemember that students may have problems with both the grammar and the phonology (clusters, stress, etc.)
35 Why are third person -s and past tense -d so difficult to learn? Despite being very frequentThey are difficult to hear (low perceptual salience):very shortin clustersin unstressed syllables/s, z/ and /t, d/ are just one sound and not a separate syllableCompare -ing, -er, -est
36 Perceptual salience Identify the word Identify the sound Word 1 Word 2 added/əd/played/d/crunched/t/kisses/əz/ribs/z/ships/s/
37 Why are third person -s and past tense -d so difficult to learn? They have three different allomorphs/s, z, əz/ and /d, t, əd/Compare -ing: usually /ɪŋ/, sometimes /ɪn/Compare -er/-est: forms don’t changeSimilar sounding morphemesThird person -s sounds the same as plural -s, possessive -s, and contractions of is and hasCompare: -er and –est are usually comparatives
38 Why are third person -s and past tense -d so difficult to learn? They have complex meanings-s: Third person singular present tense (3 things!)Compare plural –s: plural (1 thing)L1 interferenceIf L1 doesn’t have subject–verb agreement or past tense, -s and -ed may be more difficult to learnThey don’t add much meaning (past tense is often clear from context or adverbial phrases)Further reading: Meta-analysis by Goldschneider & DeKeyser (2001, in Language Learning)
39 ReflectionIf a student pronounces cats as /kæt/ and dogs as /dɑg/, how can a teacher determine whether the student has a grammatical problem or a pronunciation problem?Do you recall learning any phonological differences in the parts of speech of English?Native speakersL2 speakers
40 Reflection What would you do as a teacher? A student pronounces all past tenses as /əd/A student pronounces all words ending in -ate as /eyt/ regardless of the part of speechA student asks why the plural of wife is wives, but the plural of chief is chiefs
41 Next class (April 22) Read Chapter 9, but skip: The AlphabetStressed and Unstressed Vowels and their spelling patternsWord-Internal PalatalizationRead Chapter 2 from Phonics they use (on BB)Can you modify these activities for older children and adult?Homework assignment (not graded, not to be handed in) on Blackboard.Bring to class, and be ready to discuss