Presentation on theme: "LCD720 – 04/01/09 Phonology and grammar. Announcements Midterm –Grades on Blackboard Reminder –10% of your grade is for participation Final paper –Guidelines."— Presentation transcript:
LCD720 – 04/01/09 Phonology and grammar
Announcements Midterm –Grades on Blackboard Reminder –10% of your grade is for participation Final paper –Guidelines are on BlackboardGuidelines –Due on May 13 before class –Submit on Blackboard (or ) –In Word (not pdf)
Homework Construct a fill-in-the-blanks exercise for teaching contractions/blendings –Form groups of three, and try out your exercise on your two fellow students –Which items (blanks) worked well? –Which items didn’t work that well? Why? What changes do you suggest?
Interfaces, or How pronunciation is involved in other parts of language knowledge and skills Listening: perception Grammar Orthography (spelling) Today
Phonology and grammar A morpheme may be pronounced differently depending on its phonological environment (morphophonology) –E.g., past tense -ed Pronunciation problems can affect grammar –Morphemes (regular and irregular forms) –Word classes (nouns vs. verbs) Pronunciation needs to be addressed in the grammar lesson
Phonology and regular morphemes English has 8 regular morphological inflections –-s Plural nouns Possessive Third-person singular present tense –-ed Past tense Past participle / passive –Present participle: -ing –Comparative degree: -er –Superlative degree: -est -s and -ed change depending on the phonological environment; -ing, -er, and -est don’t change
-s morphemes Remember the rules Examples: /z//s//əz/ –boysboatsbuses(plurals) –seesmakesuses(3 rd sg verb) –Marvin’sMike’sRose’s(possessive) /z/ is the basic form (after vowels and voiced consonants) –/z/ becomes /s/ after voiceless consonants –/z/ becomes /əz/ after sibilants Sibilants: /s/, /z/, / ʃ /, / ʒ /, / ʧ /, / ʤ / Note: Pronunciation of all three morphemes is the same, even if the spelling isn’t
-s morphemes Possessive of regular plural nouns –The girl’s book vs. The girls’ book –The pronunciation is the same Possessive of irregular plural nouns –Men’s clothing, children’s toys –’s is added to the irregular plural form The same rules apply for contractions of is, has and does –/ z / His name’s John –/ s / It’s raining –(/ əz / Rich’s sick)
Teaching -s morphemes Usually these three morphemes are not presented simultaneously –Students should be reminded of the rules of the previously introduced morpheme Go through the five stages –Consciousness raising –(Listening discrimination): Instead: e.g., fill-in-the-blanks with spoken text –Controlled practice –Guided practice –Communicative practice
Which allomorph? Plural allomorphs:Plural allomorphs –Do you hear /z/, /s/ or / əz /? Past tense allomorphs:Past tense allomorphs –Do you hear /d/, /t/ or / əd /?
Regular past tense -ed Give examples; describe the rules –What is the basic form? –When does the form change, and why? What other verb forms have –ed? What activities do you propose for each of the five stages, and why? –What difficulties may arise when you develop an activity, e.g., should you avoid certain verbs?
-ed Examples: /d//t//əd/ –criedwalkedchatted –robbedkissedadded /d/ is the basic form (after vowels and voiced consonants) –/d/ becomes /t/ after voiceless consonants –/d/ becomes /əd/ after /t/ and /d/
Teaching -ed Relevant for simple past, present/past perfect, and passive Similar to teaching –s Go through the five steps –Consciousness raising –(Listening discrimination): Instead: e.g., fill-in-the-blanks with spoken text –Controlled, guided, communicative practice Caveat: Many highly frequent verbs are irregular (was, had, did, made, …) –Make sure the exercises elicit regular verbs
More morphophonology -ing (progressive, gerunds) -er and –est (comparatives, superlatives) Irregular forms (nouns, verbs) Part-of-speech alternations
-ing -ing is used for progressive participles –walking, reading, studying -ing can be pronounced as -in’ –Ain’t misbehavin’ –Depends on formality and on the speaker –Does not depend on the phonological environment
-er and -est -er and -est have the same meaning as more and most (periphrastic forms) -er/more-est/most –bigbiggerbiggest *more big*most big –beautifulmore beautifulmost beautiful *beautifuller*beautifullest When to use -er and -est, and when more and most? –There are rules, but they’re not as strict as for -s and -ed What rules do you know? (see next slide)
-er and -est big – bigger – biggest small – smaller – smallest happy – happier – happiest friendly – friendlier – friendliest narrow – narrower – narrowest curious – more curious – most curious slowly – more slowly – most … independent – more …– most … tender – more … – most … (tenderer/tenderest?) stupid – more stupid – most stupid stupider? stupidest? handsome – more handsome – most handsome handsomer? handsomest? Try to think of more examples What rules for -er/-est vs. more/most? Hint: The morphology has to do with the phonology
-er/-est vs. more/most -er/-est –One-syllable words big – bigger – biggest small – smaller – smallest large – larger – largest –Two-syllable words that end in –y happy – happier – happiest –Many two-syllable adjectives that end in unstressed –ly, -ow, or –le friendly – friendlier – friendliest narrow – narrower – narrowest gentle – gentler – gentlest Or: more / most friendly
-er/-est vs. more/most more/most –Many two-syllable adverbs ending in -ly slowly – more slowly – most slowly –Other two-syllables adjectives and adverbs curious – more curious – most curious –Adjectives and adverbs of three or more syllables independent – more independent – most independent
-er/-est vs. more/most Variable cases –Two-syllables adjectives that end in –er or –ure tender – more tender – most tender tender – tenderer – tenderest –Two-syllable adjectives that end in a weakly stressed vowel, with final /d/ or /t/ stupid – more stupid – most stupid stupid – stupider – stupidest –Two-syllable adjectives that end in weakly stressed -some handsome – more handsome – most handsome handsome – handsomer – handsomest Depends on formality
Teaching comparative and superlative forms Don’t introduce all rules at once –This will overwhelm the student –Start with the clearest, most basic rules One-syllable words get -er/-est Two-syllable words in -y get -er/-est Longer words (three or more syllables) get more/most Give a lot of examples –When there are many rules and exceptions, it’s often easier to learn by analogy to examples
Why is “curiouser” not “good English”? What rule did Alice forget?
-er/-est or more/most? And why? short noisy simple personalized stylish costly fabulous quiet careful appealing easily pale perfect -er/-est more/most either more/most -er/-est more/most -er/-est none! one syllable two syllables, -y two syllables, -le ≥ 3 syllables two syllables, other two syllables, -ly ≥ 3 syllables two syllabes, -t/-d two syllables, other ≥ 3 syllables one syllable can’t get better than perfect
Irregular forms: Nouns Some irregular forms come from Latin and Greek –criterion – criteria; datum – data Other irregular forms have a Germanic origin Vowel change –foot – feet; man – men –This is still used in modern German Mann – Männer (“man” – “men”) f/v alternation –leaf – leaves; wife – wives; shelf – shelves –Historically /f/ became /v/ between two vowels (when the ‘e’ in leaves, wives, shelves was still pronounced) θ/ð alternation –bath/baths; truth/truths ( θ in singular, ð in plural)
Irregular forms: Verbs Two very frequent verbs –be: am/is/are – was/were – been –go: go – went – gone Other frequent, irregular verbs have recognizable patterns –E.g., / ɪ-æ-ʌ / pattern sing – sang – sung; begin – began – begun –These patterns are remnants of older rules –Students can use these regularities to learn the verb forms
Irregular forms: Verbs Some examples: verbs that get or have -t / -d (‘weak verbs’) –/d/ => /t/ build – built – built; send – sent – sent –no change let – let – let; hit – hit – hit –/iy/ + /d/ => / ɛ / + /t/ creep – crept – crept leave – left – left –Vowel shortening (/iy/ => / ɛ /; /ay/ => / ɪ /) feed – fed – fed; slide – slid – slid –And more…
Irregular forms: Verbs Some examples: vowel change (‘strong verbs’) –Three different vowels sing – sang – sung; begin – began – begun –Same vowel in past and past participle dig – dug – dug; win – won – won –/ay/ - /ow/ - / ɪ / + -en drive – drove – driven; write – wrote – written –Vowel change in past tense only run – ran – run; come – came – come –And more…
Teaching irregular forms Don’t present all rules at once –This will overwhelm the students –Present exceptions, and a few rules am/is/are – was/were – been; go – went – gone / ɪ-æ-ʌ / pattern:sing – sang – sung /d/ => /t/:send – sent – sent no change:hit – hit – hit Give a lot of examples –When there are many rules and exceptions, it’s often easier to learn by analogy –When students memorize the forms, they will discover some of the patterns on their own
Part-of-speech alternations Remember: –Sometimes, nouns and verbs have a different stress pattern CON DUCT (n) vs. conDUCT (v) REBel (n) vs. reBEL (v) –Note: this is not a rule, just a pattern for some words There are other systematic differences between nouns and verbs as well...
Part-of-speech alternations /s/-/z/, / θ /-/ ð /, /f/-/v/ alternations between nouns and verbs nounverb –use/use/ yuws // yuwz / –loss/lose/ lɑs // luwz / –advice/advise/ ədvays // ədvayz / –teeth/teethe/ tiyθ // tiyð / –life/live/ layf // lɪv / –proof/prove/ pruwf // pruwv / Remember: Voicing of consonants affects the length of the preceding vowel
Part-of-speech alternations No stress vs. light stress –DUplicate (n) vs. DUpli CATE (v) / ə t/ /eyt/ Location of stress –CON DUCT (n) vs. conDUCT (v) –PRO JECT (n) vs. proJECT (v) Remember: No stress vs. light/strong stress affects vowel reduction Can you think of more examples?
Teaching part-of-speech alternations Don’t present all rules at once –This will overwhelm the students –Present a few rules advice/advise; life/live DUplicate (n) vs. DUpli CATE (v) CON DUCT (n) vs. conDUCT (v) Give a lot of examples –When there are many rules and exceptions, it’s often easier to learn by analogy Caveat: Don’t assume students know either the correct pronunciation or the part of speech of any of these words
Teaching phonology and grammar Address pronunciation as soon as these grammar items are introduced –Pronunciation (and perception) of past tense, plural, possessive, etc. should be an integral part of the grammar lesson –Students need to be able to hear the affixes and stress patterns correctly, so they can learn from the input –Students need to be able to pronounce the suffixes and stress patterns correctly Remember that students may have problems with both the grammar and the phonology (clusters, stress, etc.)
Why are third person -s and past tense -d so difficult to learn? Despite being very frequent They are difficult to hear (low perceptual salience): –very short –in clusters –in unstressed syllables –/s, z/ and /t, d/ are just one sound and not a separate syllable Compare -ing, -er, -est
Perceptual salience Identify the word –Word 1Word 1 –Word 2Word 2 –Word 3Word 3 Identify the word –Word 1Word 1 –Word 2Word 2 –Word 3Word 3 Identify the sound –Sound 1Sound 1 –Sound 2Sound 2 –Sound 3Sound 3 Identify the sound –Sound 1Sound 1 –Sound 2Sound 2 –Sound 3Sound 3 added played crunched / əd / /d/ /t/ / əz / /z/ /s/ kisses ribs ships
Why are third person -s and past tense -d so difficult to learn? They have three different allomorphs –/ s, z, əz / and / d, t, əd / –Compare -ing: usually / ɪŋ /, sometimes / ɪn / –Compare -er/-est: forms don’t change Similar sounding morphemes –Third person -s sounds the same as plural -s, possessive -s, and contractions of is and has –Compare: -er and –est are usually comparatives
Why are third person -s and past tense -d so difficult to learn? They have complex meanings –-s: Third person singular present tense (3 things!) –Compare plural –s: plural (1 thing) L1 interference –If L1 doesn’t have subject–verb agreement or past tense, -s and -ed may be more difficult to learn They don’t add much meaning (past tense is often clear from context or adverbial phrases) Further reading: Meta-analysis by Goldschneider & DeKeyser (2001, in Language Learning)
Reflection If a student pronounces cats as / kæt / and dogs as / dɑg /, how can a teacher determine whether the student has a grammatical problem or a pronunciation problem? Do you recall learning any phonological differences in the parts of speech of English? –Native speakers –L2 speakers
Reflection What would you do as a teacher? A student pronounces all past tenses as / əd / A student pronounces all words ending in -ate as /eyt/ regardless of the part of speech A student asks why the plural of wife is wives, but the plural of chief is chiefs
Next class (April 22) Read Chapter 9, but skip: –The Alphabet –Stressed and Unstressed Vowels and their spelling patterns –Word-Internal Palatalization Read Chapter 2 from Phonics they use (on BB) –Can you modify these activities for older children and adult? Homework assignment (not graded, not to be handed in) on Blackboard. –Bring to class, and be ready to discuss