Presentation on theme: "One Bachelor of Agricultural Science (BAgrSc) - 120 Tertiary Level Tourism Qualifications “so lets get this right – tourism is about going to look at things,"— Presentation transcript:
One Bachelor of Agricultural Science (BAgrSc) Tertiary Level Tourism Qualifications “so lets get this right – tourism is about going to look at things, saying yeah that looks different and then staying in a nice hotel with clean sheets” Associate Professor Jon Hickford President of the NZ Institute of Agricultural and Horticultural Science
So only stupid “farm-boys” who can’t succeed in real subjects and won’t be much good for anything other than wondering around in a pair of gumboots drinking beer should come to Lincoln? Correct?
No!! The Lincoln University Bachelor of Agricultural Science Degree is a 4 year professional degree with an additional 39 weeks of practical work in a variety of leading agribusinesses and it is “research-lead” There are over 80 career agricultural scientists many with international reputations who contribute to this degree programme.
What is an international reputation? Forrest R, Itenge-Mweza T, McKenzie G, Zhou H, Frampton C, Hickford JG. Polymorphism of the ovine beta-adrenergic receptor gene (ADRB3) and its association with wool mean staple strength and yield. Animal Genetics Jun 15. [In Press]. Zhou H, Lottner S, Ganter M, Hickford JG. Identification of two new Dichelobacter nodosus strains in Germany. The Veterinary Journal Mar 12 [In Press]. Ennen S, Hamann H, Distl O, J. Hickford JG, Zhou H, Ganter M. A field trial to control ovine footrot via vaccination and genetic markers. Small Ruminant Research 86: 22– Kunhareang S, Zhou H, Hickford JG. Novel sequence of the porcine IGHA gene. Molecular Immunology 47(2-3): Zhou H, Ennen S, Ganter M, Hickford JG. Isolation of new anaerobic bacteria from sheep hooves infected with footrot. Veterinary Microbiology 139(3-4): Yang G, Zhou H, Hu J, Luo Y, Hickford JG. Extensive diversity of the ADRB3 gene in Chinese sheep identified by PCR-SSCP. Biochemical Genetics 47(7-8): Hickford JG, Forrest RH, Zhou H. Association between a g.+6723G-A SNP in the myostatin gene (MSTN) and carcass traits in New Zealand Texel sheep. Journal of Animal Science 87(6): Bennett G, Hickford JG, Zhou H, Laporte J, Gibbs J. Detection of Fusobacterium necrophorum and Dichelobacter nodosus in lame cattle on dairy farms in New Zealand. Research in Veterinary Science 87(3): Bennett G, van Loenen A, Zhou H, Sedcole R, Hickford JG. The detection of Dichelobacter nodosus and Fusobacterium necrophorum from footrot lesions in New Zealand goats. Anaerobe 15(4):
So what research is done in agriculture? Lamb Cold-Tolerance Research
Cost of neonatal lamb mortality due to cold exposure in N.Z. per annum Number of Lambs Born = 28.9 million (Meat & Wool Economic Service of N.Z., 2001) 15% of all lambs born die before weaning 15% (McCutcheon et al. 1981, Everett-Hinks et al. 2009) =4.335 million dead lambs 15% of all dead lambs die of cold exposure x 15% (Gumbrell & Saville, 1986) = dead lambs due to cold exposure Average price of a lamb $80 = $52 million per annum
So what affects lamb cold survival?
The Beta-3 Adrenergic Receptor Gene (B3AR or ADRB3) Variation linked with cold survival, birth weight, growth weight to weaning and carcass fat (Forrest et al. 2003) – but in small numbers of lambs only. So we did a BIG study!
Cause of Death Diagnosis Dead lambs were classified as having died from starvation- mis-mothering - exposure (SME) if they died within four days of birth and no other cause of death was obvious, such as a swollen head (dystocia), membranes over the nose (suffocation), unbroken feet membranes (stillborn) or birth defects. Birth weight and the climate variables at birth were also recorded.
Birthweight vs. Lamb Death (Literature) Figure from Scales et al (single lambs only) Includes lambs assisted & surviving
Starvation Exposure vs. Birth Weight
Trial Design 23 leading breeders – producing approximately lambs p.a. (Breeds: Corriedale, Suffolk, Poll Dorset, Merino, Polwarth, Dorset Down, Hampshire, Coopworth) Spread geographically from Gore to Blenheim Lambed from July to November
Results Overall - two alleles of ADRB3 were associated with increased risk of cold death - two alleles of ADRB3 associated with decreased risk of cold death
- e.g. Bad allele C – over 9% of lambs carrying that allele (n=4398) died of SME in the study Good allele E – 5.5% of lambs carrying that allele (n= 4082) died of SME in this study A potentially valuable gene marker!
The added bonus Further analysis suggests that the variation in the Beta-3 adrenergic receptor gene is an even better predictor of total mortality and not just cold-related death This was an unexpected but good outcome and we are currently trying to ascertain why it is the case
e.g. Merino Specific Results – Total Mortality – more than 10% deaths Allele FrequencyOdds Ratio a b c d **** e ** f n = < P ≤ 0.10 **0.01 < P ≤ 0.05 ***0.001 < P ≤ 0.01 **** P ≤ 0.001
The Cold-Tolerance Gene-Marker Test – a commercial business within the University Approximately rams tested to date at $33 plus GST each ($495k gross) Used in 5 countries (NZ, Aus. Canada, Greece and Chile) Growing!
Future Plans Further alleles to investigate Further relationships with fat deposition and growth rate to be investigated
Acknowledgements Dr Rachel Forrest Mr John Bates The Sheep Farmers of NZ Merino Inc Mid Micron Wools of NZ RomneyNZ Dr Huitong Zhou, Freeman Fang, Yang Guo, Chris Frampton.