Presentation on theme: "Unit 8 Social Meaning Social meaning is that which a piece of language conveys about the social circumstances of its use. In part, we decode the social."— Presentation transcript:
Social meaning is that which a piece of language conveys about the social circumstances of its use. In part, we decode the social meaning of a text through our recognition of different dimensions and levels of style within the same language.
connotative affective associative meaning reflected social collocative
We recognize some words or pronunciations as being dialectal, i.e. as telling us something of the geographical or social origin of the speaker.
Other features of language tell us something of the social relationship between the speaker and hearer; we have a scale of status usage, for example, descending from formal and literary English at one end to colloquial, familiar, and eventually slang English at the other.
Variation according to: Dialect (the language of geographical region or of a social class) Time (the language of the eighteenth century, etc.)
Province (language of law, of science, of advertising, etc.) Status (polite, colloquial, slang, etc. ) Singularity (the style of Dickens, of Hemingway, etc.)
Variation according to Dialect: 不同 的词汇表示同种语义： British EnglishSingapore English Majority Ground Hit Box Holiday Off Switch off Close Turn on Open Chaffing dish Steamboat Stamp Chop Decorator Contractor
Porridge: Singapore English: A bowl of plain or savoury rice gruel, which can be cooked with small pieces of meat or fish British English: a thick, sticky food made from oats cooked in water or milk, or to which sugar is added
Mutton chop Singapore English: Chopped-up lumps of meat with no bone British English: Pieces of bone with meat attached
duck’s egg Singapore English: zero mark for an academic work British English: the egg laid by ducks
Butler Singapore English: Stewards or stewardesses British English: a male housekeeper Interchange Singapore English: bus terminals British English: a junction where a motorway meets a main road, etc.
仅在新加坡使用的词汇与表达法，但还未 被上层语言所接受，例如： Singapore English Meanings sayanga mixed feeling of pity, love, regret for sth. precious that is lost tambyoffice attendant; office boy kaypohgreedy; interfering in others’ affairs kayu stupid; dull kiasua feeling of fearing failure on inferiority to others
Singapore English Meanings Aksy Affected Ang-moh red-hair; a person of European ancestry Boleh tahan tolerably good chap chye a mixture of everything
新加坡英语的典型特征之一表现在对 “ la ” 的使用上。 (1) 表达一种 “ 显而易见 ” 的事实，例如： No need to count la. There are 30 students la. (2) 表达一种委婉的建议，例如： You tell him la! I’m so scared of him. (3) 在作出某种解释时，用于缓和语气， 避免粗鲁，例如： I was absent, because I was ill la.
le (1) 表示说话人不赞成某件事情的发生, 例如 : You can’t walk there, very far le. Hoh (1) 把直陈语气转为疑问句式，例如： This is not true, hoh? (2) 蕴有一种 “ 劝说 ” 的话语功能，例如： You wait for me here, hoh.
感叹词 (1) Ay yaaah! 常在说话人生气时使用，例如： Ay yaaah! You made the same mistake again! (2) Ay yor! 常用来表示 “ 痛苦 ” 、 “ 惊讶 ” 等， 例如： Ay yor! How can you do such a foolish thing ? (3) Ayyer! 常用于对不愉快的事或不是预料 中的行为所作的感叹，例如： Ayyer! What a mess!
(4) Che! 常用于对不愉快事情的发生 表示 “ 恼怒 ” 或 “ 遗憾 ” ，例如： Che! Don’t interrupt me ! (5) allamah 常用来表示说话人对自 己的言语、行为错误等的不满，例 如： Allamah! I forgot to shut the door!
Variation according to: Time (the language of the eighteenth century, etc.)
In Shakespeare’s Hamlet: jump just censure opinion vulgar common fond stupid pregnant meaningful gossip female friends
Structures: OSV Saxons the victory won. Him man not gave. SOV: He him saw
VSO Then sent they home a messenger Then sent the king the dish.
Negation form: I deny it not. Forbid him not. I love thee not He saw you not.
Words lost: In Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet: beseem be suitable wot know gyve fetter
Words that only preserved in poetry, etc. The boy is fair, of female favour. (W. Shakespeared: As you like it) favour: looks, contenance. P.112
What is freedom? Ye can tell That which slavery is, too well. Ye : you It’s deuced kind of you. Deuced: extremely
More examples: ere (before); oft(often); albeit (although) thither( there) theretofore (up to that time) save (except) perchance ( perhaps)
Province (language of law, of science, of advertising, etc.) in the field of language of law: General Specialist theft larceny beat assault burning arson crime felony
(language of science) General Specialist hole orifice/cavity speed velocity force intensity
(language of advertising) account ：雇佣广告公司为其商品等 作广告的公司和人。 ad ：指报刊或杂志上的印刷性广告 以区别于广播、电视广告。 campaign ：指形式不同，内容相似 的某一商品的系列广告。 CPM ：指某一广告在某一媒介上传 播至每一千人或一千户家庭，刊登 广告人所花的费用。
Creative ：指从事广告的实际制作， 如： Creative Department Direct Mail ：指包广告直接投递给 潜在的消费者。 Editorial Matter ： 对报刊、杂志中 非广告性内容的总称。 Flier ：单页广告。
Slice of Life ：非常现实，具有生活 气息的商业广告。 Spot ：广播、电视为媒介的广告。 Talent ：指制作商业广告中演员、歌 手、舞蹈人员、播音员、模特的总 称。 Up-Cutting ：剪切广播或电视节目的 一部分内容以便有更多的时间进行 广告宣传。 Yellow Goods ：利润高的耐用品。
Variation according to Status: (polite, colloquial, slang, etc. )
Variation according to Singularity: (the style of Dickens, of Hemingway, etc.)
Buffon, a French writer and naturalist of the 18th century once said: Style, it is the man himself.
Jane Austen saw life in a clear, dry light. She was not without deep human sympathies, but she had a quick eye for vanity, selfishness and vulgarity and she perceived the frequent incongruities between the way people talked and the realities of a situation.
Her style is quiet and level. She never exaggerates, she never, as it were, raises her voice to shout or scream. She is neither pompous, nor sentimental, nor flippant, but always gravely polite, and her writing contains a delicate but sharp edged irony.
Here is a very different way of writing. Charles Dickens is describing Stone Lodge, the home of Mr. Gradgrind, in Hard Times:
To his matter-of-fact home, which was called Stone Lodge, Mr gradgrind directed his steps…. A very regular feature on the face of the country, Stone Lodge was. Not the least disguise toned down or shaded off that uncompromising fact in the landscape. A great square house, with a heavy portico darkening the principal windows, as its master’s heavy brows overshadowed his eyes.
A calculated, cast up balanced, and proved house. Six windows on this side of the door six on that side; a total of twelve in this wing, a total of twelve in the other wing; four-and – twenty carried over to the back wings. A lawn and garden and an infant avenue, all ruled straight like a botanical account-book.
Mr. Gradgrind and Stone lodge suggest hardness, cold fact, the absence of tenderness and grace. The description of the house reinforces this point. Notice that the regularity and strict arithmetical proportions of the house are not just mentioned once but repeated again and again.
A calculated, cast up balanced, and proved house. Six windows on this side of the door six on that side; a total of twelve in this wing, a total of twelve in the other wing; four-and – twenty carried over to the back wings
Dickens’s criticism of “the Gradgrind philosophy”, of the utilitarian attitude to life that took account only of facts and statistics and disregarded human feelings, is direct and forceful. Detail is heaped upon detail to create a suitable house for Mr. Gradgrind, a house that hardly resembles an actual house.
Steed (poetic) domicile (very formal, official) Horse (general) residence (formal) Nag (slang) abode (poetic) Gee-gee home (general) (baby language)