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1 Downloaded from Crew Resource Management Presented by: Jim Kirby, ASI SLC FAA FSDO.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Downloaded from Crew Resource Management Presented by: Jim Kirby, ASI SLC FAA FSDO."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Downloaded from Crew Resource Management Presented by: Jim Kirby, ASI SLC FAA FSDO

2 2 Downloaded from Crew Resource Management: “ The effective use of all available resources needed to complete a safe and efficient flight. ”

3 3 Downloaded from Objectives: n n Human factors that cause accidents n n Critical success factors and elements n n Concepts and tools of aircrew coordination training (CRM/ACT) We will explore:

4 4 Downloaded from Goals of CRM: Goals of CRM: CRM should provide pilot with: CRM should provide pilot with: n KNOWLEDGE n KNOWLEDGE of concepts and procedures n ATTITUDE n ATTITUDE which recognizes the importance of good aircrew coordination to safety. n SKILLS n SKILLS to effect implementation of knowledge

5 5 Downloaded from Quick analysis of past mishaps

6 6 Downloaded from Who’s having accidents?

7 7 Downloaded from Who’s having accidents?

8 8 Downloaded from Typical aircrew errors n Loss of situational awareness n Violation of FAR n Departure from proven procedures n Poor judgment or decision making n Preoccupation with minor mechanical problems

9 9 Downloaded from Inadequate leadership--Failing to: n Delegate tasks n Assign meaningful responsibilities n Set priorities n Lack of monitoring n Failure to use available information n Failure to communicate plans, problems, etc. Typical aircrew errors

10 10 Downloaded from The Aircrew Coordination (AC) Cycle

11 11 Downloaded from Critical Success Elements Critical Success Elements

12 12 Downloaded from Purpose of P&R: “ Accomplish the mission safely! ” “ Accomplish the mission safely! ”

13 13 Downloaded from Guiding Principle: “ Everyone knows the regulations and procedures and will comply. ” (Fatal assumption?)

14 14 Downloaded from Depart from P&R? Would YOU...

15 15 Downloaded from Inadvertent Departures Inadvertent Departures n n Attention n n Memory n n Attitude n n Stress

16 16 Downloaded from Purposeful Departures from P&R... n n Mind traps n n Disregard for “ silly ” rules n n Pressure n n Unwise commands

17 17 Downloaded from Positive Flight Crew Characteristics n n In control of people and events or appear to be n n Built-in calculated emotional distance n n Mission oriented compartmentalizers n n Systematic, methodical and predictable

18 18 Downloaded from Negative Flight Crew Characteristics n n Not spontaneous n n Can and do become complacent as we get better n n Do meaningless “ rituals ” - a trap n n Need “ positive feedback ”

19 19 Downloaded from Assertiveness n n Excessive professional courtesy n n Halo effect n n Copilot syndrome

20 20 Downloaded from The Assertive Statement n n 5 Steps: OPENING STATE CONCERN STATE THE PROBLEM OFFER A SOLUTION OBTAIN AGREEMENT “ This is stupid! ” Ways to overcome these traps:

21 21 Downloaded from Authority/Assertiveness Crew Incapacitation: n n Obvious n n Subtle “ Two-Challenge Rule ”

22 22 Downloaded from Conflict Resolution Techniques: Destructive Patterns n n Apologize prematurely n n Refuse to take flight seriously n n Withdraw, evade, walkout n n Use intimate knowledge (below belt) n n Bring in unrelated issues n n Make Hollow promises n n Attack indirectly n n Demand more (must win) n n Store hurts n n Use belittling humor

23 23 Downloaded from Conflict Resolution Techniques: Constructive Patterns n n Program time to discuss issues n n Give expression to feelings n n Replay other person's feelings n n Define issues clearly n n Discover where positions agree n n Discover points of vulnerability n n Determine depth of feelings n n Offer self corrections n n Recognize spontaneous humor, caring

24 24 Downloaded from Command Authority When there is disagreement: “ Conservative Response Rule ”

25 25 Downloaded from Communications Levels Levels n Poor n Good n Effective

26 26 Downloaded from Process of communications Process of communications

27 27 Downloaded from Barriers. Anything that distorts or interferes with communications: n n Noise, static n n Multiple communications n n Fatigue, stress n n Distractions n n Incomplete message n n Ambiguous wording n n Lack of credibility n n Lack of rapport n n Thing in personal terms n n Jargon n n Boring

28 28 Downloaded from Was my message received? Get feedback ! n n Deal with behavior, not person n n Focus on ideas rather than giving advice n n Focus on what is said rather than why n n Include info that can be used, not everything you know

29 29 Downloaded from Hidden Agenda: Withholding information for personal reasons n n Insures loss of communications n n Hard to detect n n Taints judgment

30 30 Downloaded from Responsibility! n Sender Be clear & concise Consider the environment Address receiver ’ s needs n Receiver Active listening Interpreting Evaluating Responding

31 31 Downloaded from Workload Performance Workload Performance

32 32 Downloaded from Classifications of Workload: n CRITICAL: n CRITICAL: A workload item that requires immediate attention to avert catastrophe. n IMPORTANT: n IMPORTANT: A workload item that requires response as soon as possible, else it will become critical. n ROUTINE: n ROUTINE: An item encountered in normal flight, but if left unattended could become important.

33 33 Downloaded from Work load too high Work load too high n n Work faster, try to cram more into a shorter time frame. n n Overall concept of flight breaks down. Overall view begins to narrow and become shorter n n As pace quickens, attention become tunneled--pilot fixates on one item. n n Revert to previous habits (good or bad)

34 34 Downloaded from Recognizing High Workload n n Individual workload tolerance varies n n Difficulty adhering to normal performance standards n n Errors, erratic performance n n Getting away from good fundamentals of aircraft control n n Uncertainty, indecision, discomfort n n Losing normal scan, tunnel vision, fixation n n Temporal distortion n n Hesitant, confused speech

35 35 Downloaded from Protecting against high workload n n Intimate KNOWLEDGE of the business n n Professional ATTITUDE n n SKILL to fly without excessive attention to aircraft

36 36 Downloaded from Managing High Workload n n Delegate n n Prioritize n n Expand time available

37 37 Downloaded from Work load too low Work load too low n n Boredom n n Fatigue n n Frustration n n Dissatisfaction

38 38 Downloaded from Distractions Distractions Operational Vs. non-operational: n n One thing at a time... n n Length of Attention... n n Large number of stimuli: (overload!)

39 39 Downloaded from Dealing with distractions n Ignore: n Ignore: Good during critical phases of flight. Planning can reduce distractions. n Delay: n Delay: If it can wait, then delay it (judgment comes in here!) n Delegate: n Delegate: Let someone else handle the distraction if it warranted. n Handle: n Handle: Handle important distraction right away, but do not become fixated at the expense of other important functions. n Sterile cockpit: n Sterile cockpit: Reduces or eliminates distractions

40 40 Downloaded from Stress Stress n Can result in: Distress Anxiety Oppression Affliction n B ody signals: Headaches Heartburn Cramps Fatigue

41 41 Downloaded from n n ENVIRONMENTAL n n Cold/heat/light n n Danger n n Living conditions n n PERSONAL n n INTRAPERSONAL conflict n n Hereditary traits n n INTERPERSONAL n n Personality conflict n n Mistrust n n Lack of support n n Poor communication n n PRIVATE LIFE Stressors:

42 42 Downloaded from Stressors n n Family problems n n Financial concerns n n Health care n n Pressure from friends n n Time for personal interests n n ORGANIZATIONAL n n Role conflict n n Job ambiguity n n Underwork/overwork n n changes n n Travel n n People management n n Organizational structure

43 43 Downloaded from Frequent Causes for a failing aviator n n Recently engaged n n Marital problems n n Divorce n n Relationship difficulties n n Major career decision/change n n Trouble with superiors or peers

44 44 Downloaded from Managing stress Managing stress n n Organize yourself n n Change your environment n n Build up your strength n n Listen to your body n n Learn to relax n n Find ways to laugh each day n n Develop a supportive network around you

45 45 Downloaded from People, equipment and information that can contribute to a successful flight and the prevention of error during the flight. Available Resources:

46 46 Downloaded from Internal Resources: Internal Resources: n Pilot n Copilot n Crew n Equipment knowledge

47 47 Downloaded from External Resources: External Resources: n n Other pilots via Pireps & communications n n ATC n n Tech reps & maintenance personnel n n FSS n n Time (think ahead, space out tasks)

48 48 Downloaded from The combined action of separate resources has greater total effect than the sum of their individual effects when they are assimilated by the flight crew. Synergy:

49 49 Downloaded from The accurate perception of the factors affecting the aircraft and the crew, including knowing what has happened in the past, what’s going on now, and how these affect what might happen in the future. Situational Awareness:

50 50 Downloaded from Maintaining good situational awareness: Critical Success Factors: n n Knowledge (plus experience/training) n n Attitude n n Personal health n n Crew coordination n n Inquiry

51 51 Downloaded from Causes of loss of situational awareness: n n Fixation n n Ambiguity n n Unresolved disagreement or discrepancy n n Complacency n n Euphoria n n Gut feeling n n Distraction

52 52 Downloaded from Minimizing loss of situational awareness n n Illness? n n Medication? n n Stress? n n Alcohol? n n Fatigue? n n Eating?

53 53 Downloaded from I ILLNESS? M MEDICATION? S STRESS? A ALCOHOL? F FATIGUE? E EATING? The “ I ’ M SAFE ” checklist

54 54 Downloaded from Decision Making Decision Making A multitude of factors: n n Knowledge n n Training n n Experience n n Attitudes

55 55 Downloaded from Sudden Loss of Judgment n n Helicopter mind trap n n Airshow Syndrome n n Perceived Pressure n n Halo Effect (expired experience) Special Situations:

56 56 Downloaded from Hazardous Attitudes n n Anti-authority n n Impulsivity n n Invulnerability n n Macho n n Resignation n n Get There-itis

57 57 Downloaded from Risk Evaluation AESOP MODEL Aircraft Environment Situation Operations Personnel

58 58 Downloaded from It ’ s break time! Please be back in 10 minutes

59 59 Downloaded from Operating Strategy = + Duties + SCOP Aircrew Cycle

60 60 Downloaded from SCOP A specific technique for effecting good situational awareness, decision making and communications

61 61 Downloaded from Standard Cockpit Operating Procedure (SCOP) n n Who flies n n Who briefs what and when n n Callouts: who makes them and when n n Who does miscellaneous procedures n n Checklist use (style and procedure)

62 62 Downloaded from Briefings: Briefings: PIC briefs SIC n n Filed flight plan n n Weather conditions n n Itinerary, delays, stopovers, etc. n n PIC/SIC, PF/PNF assignments n n Question SIC about: Fuel loaded Preflight inspection Load manifest, W&B Answer questions

63 63 Downloaded from Briefings: Before takeoff briefing n n Initial heading & altitude n n Review critical “ V ” speeds n n A dvise of malfunctions & emergency action n n B ackup power settings n n Standard C allouts n n Any Questions?

64 64 Downloaded from Briefings: Briefings: Approach briefing n n Name & location of IAP n n Field elevation n n Final approach crs. description n n Name of final approach fix n n DH/MDA timing n n Missed approach procedure — at least first heading and altitude n n Any questions?

65 65 Downloaded from Checklists n n Ensure proper configuration of aircraft n n Basis for procedural standardization n n A collection of task lists

66 66 Downloaded from Normal Checklist: n n Verifies aircraft configuration n n Provides sequential framework n n Allows for cross-checking n n Dictates crew duties n n Enhances the team concept n n Quality control tool n n Reduces reliance on memory n n Helps prevent exceeding aircraft limitations

67 67 Downloaded from Excuses! I don ’ t use checklists because — n n They take too much time... n n I know my airplane so well... n n They are too much work... n n I fly a simple airplane...

68 68 Downloaded from Checklist philosophy Methods of Use: n n Call-do-response ( “ cookbook ” ) n n Challenge-Verification- Response (checklist backs up flow patterns)

69 69 Downloaded from Redundancy n n Memory Vs. Checklist n n Inter-crew checking n n Once isn ’ t enough!

70 70 Downloaded from Checklist Pitfalls n n Memory only - no checklist backups n n Checklist pulled by habit, but not used n n Checklist left entirely up to the PNF, w/o checking for action or response from PF (all talk-no action!) n n ” Shortcutting ” -Calling several items at once, failing to verify action for each n n Failure to declare completion of checklist

71 71 Downloaded from Performance factors n n Perception n n CRM n n Interruptions and distractions n n Maintenance n n Checklist ambiguity

72 72 Downloaded from Normal Checklists Cues n n Preflight inspection n n Before Starting Engines n n Taxi n n Before Takeoff n n Lineup n n After takeoff/climb n n Cruise n n Descent n n In-range n n Descent n n Approach n n Before Landing n n After landing n n Shutdown

73 73 Downloaded from Checklist Design n n Subdivide long lists into usable chunks n n Make a checklist for each phase of flight Preflight Before starting Taxi Before takeoff Climb Cruise In range Descent Approach Before landing After landing Shutdown

74 74 Downloaded from Order of Items n n System sequence n n Motor/eye coordination Vs. checklist order n n Flow patterns n n Association: location & sequence

75 75 Downloaded from Sequence of Very Critical Items n n Locate at beginning of checklist — get attention before distractions... n n Duplicate critical “ killer ” items for emphasis (use sparingly...)

76 76 Downloaded from Design/Use Guidelines n n Respond with item status n n Touch the items n n Subdivide long checklists n n Sequence checklists to match flow patterns n n Sequence checklists with other internal/external events n n Critical items up front w/repetition n n Call checklists completed n n Build in backups n n Awareness & training

77 77 Downloaded from “There is nothing more worthless than sky above you, airspeed lost, runway behind you, fuel in the truck and checklists disregarded!” Checklist discipline:

78 78 Downloaded from Standard Callouts n n An integral part of the SCOP n n Help establish effective communications n n Assist in situational awareness n n A habit that increases the good effects of redundancy

79 79 Downloaded from Crew Resource Management *** The End ***

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