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Nobel Laureates contributing to X-ray, diffraction and crystallography InsulinInsulin crystals.

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Presentation on theme: "Nobel Laureates contributing to X-ray, diffraction and crystallography InsulinInsulin crystals."— Presentation transcript:

1 Nobel Laureates contributing to X-ray, diffraction and crystallography InsulinInsulin crystals

2 WILHELM CONRAD R Ö NTGEN ( )  1901 Nobel Laureate in Physics in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by the discovery of the remarkable rays subsequently named after him. in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by the discovery of the remarkable rays subsequently named after him.

3 MAX VON LAUE ( )  1914 Nobel Laureate in Physics His best known work, however, for which he received the Nobel Prize for Physics for 1914, was his discovery of the diffraction of X-rays on crystals. His best known work, however, for which he received the Nobel Prize for Physics for 1914, was his discovery of the diffraction of X-rays on crystals.

4 SIR WILLIAM HENRY BRAGG ( ) SIR WILLIAM LAWRENCE BRAGG ( )  1915 Nobel Laureate in Physics for their services in the analysis of crystal structure by means of X-rays. for their services in the analysis of crystal structure by means of X-rays.

5 CLINTON JOSEPH DAVISSON ( ) SIR GEORGE PAGET THOMSON ( ) son of J. J. Thomson  1937 Nobel Laureate in Physics for their experimental discovery of the diffraction of electrons by crystals. for their experimental discovery of the diffraction of electrons by crystals.

6 FRANCIS HARRY COMPTON CRICK (1916~2004) JAMES DEWEY WATSON (1928~) MAURICE HUGH FREDERICK WILKINS (1916~2004)  1962 Nobel Laureate in Medicine for their discoveries concerning the molecular structure of nuclear acids and its significance for information transfer in living material. for their discoveries concerning the molecular structure of nuclear acids and its significance for information transfer in living material. Rosalind Franklin (1920–1958) Maurice Wilkins James Watson and Francis Crick

7 Controversial statements of James D. Watson  Stupidity is a disease and the "really stupid" bottom 10% of people should be cured and that all women should be genetically engineered to be pretty.  Whenever you interview fat people, you feel bad, because you know you're not going to hire them.  If the gene (for homosexuality) were discovered and a woman decided not to give birth to a child that may have a tendency to become homosexual, she should be able to abort the fetus. An Asshole can be smart.

8 DOROTHY CROWFOOT HODGKIN ( )  1964 Nobel Laureate in Chemistry for her determinations by X-ray techniques of the structures of important biochemical substances. for her determinations by X-ray techniques of the structures of important biochemical substances. vitamin B12insulinpenicillin

9 SIR AARON KLUG (1926~)  1982 Nobel Laureate in Chemistry for his development of crystallographic electron microscopy and his structural elucidation of biologically important nuclei acid-protein complexes. for his development of crystallographic electron microscopy and his structural elucidation of biologically important nuclei acid-protein complexes.

10 HERBERT A. HAUPTMAN (1917~) JEROME KARLE (1918~)  1985 Nobel Laureate in Chemistry  for their outstanding achievements in the development of direct methods to solve the phase problems for the determination of crystal structures.

11 CLIFFORD G. SHULL (1915~)  1994 Nobel Laureate in Physics for the development of the neutron diffraction technique. for the development of the neutron diffraction technique.

12 Roger D. Kornberg (1947~)  2006 Nobel Laureate in Chemistry "for his studies of the molecular basis of eukaryotic transcription" which explains the process by which genetic information from DNA is copied to RNA, by using X-ray crystallography to solve the 3-dimensional structure of RNA polymerase at atomic resolution. "for his studies of the molecular basis of eukaryotic transcription" which explains the process by which genetic information from DNA is copied to RNA, by using X-ray crystallography to solve the 3-dimensional structure of RNA polymerase at atomic resolution. Structural Basis of Transcription: An RNA Polymerase II Elongation Complex at 3.3 Å Resolution Averell L. Gnatt, Patrick Cramer, Jianhua Fu, David A. Bushnell, and Roger D. Kornberg Science 8 June 2001: (PDF)PDF


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