Presentation on theme: "Chapter 6: Stress-Prone and Stress-Resistant Personalities As I examined my own position, I realized that the preliminary period of my persecution was."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 6: Stress-Prone and Stress-Resistant Personalities As I examined my own position, I realized that the preliminary period of my persecution was drawing to a close. Whatever lay ahead, I would have to redouble my efforts to frustrate my persecutors’ attempt to incriminate me. As long as they did not kill me, I would not give up...my mood was not one of fear and defeat, but one of resolution. - Nien Cheng
Personality Personality is thought to be comprised of several: Personality is thought to be comprised of several: – traits – characteristics – behaviors – expressions – moods – feelings (as perceived by others)
Personality The complexity of one’s personality is thought to be shaped by: The complexity of one’s personality is thought to be shaped by: – genetic factors – family dynamics – social influences – personal experiences
Personality Types & Stress n Type A behavior n Codependent personality n Helpless-hopeless personality n Hardy personality n Type R personality (sensation seeker)
Type A Behavior n time urgency n polyphasia n ultra-competitiveness n rapid speech patterns n manipulative control n hyperaggressiveness and free-floating hostility n Hostile aggression – #1 CHD predictor
Social Influences – Type A n Material wealth n Immediate gratification n Competitiveness n People as numbers n Secularization n Atrophy of the body and right brain n Television watching
Codependent Personality Traits n ardent approval seekers n super-overachievers n crisis managers n devoted loyalists n perfectionists n martyrs/manipulators n “victims” n reactionaries n inferiority/inadequacy
Codependent Personality Behaviors n External referencing n Lack of emotional boundaries n Impression management n Mistrust of one’s own perceptions n Martyr syndrome n Lack of spiritual health
Codependents Fears n Fear of rejection n Fear of the unknown n Fear of failure n Need to be needed
Helpless-Hopeless Personality n a.k.a. Learned Helplessness The Theory of Attribution The Theory of Attribution Locus of control
Learned Helplessness Develops: n When individuals experience uncontrollable life events. n When individuals believe they can do nothing to change the outcome of the events. n When individuals develop inappropriate expectations that outcomes of future events will also be beyond their control.
Learned Helplessness deficits/consequences n Motivational deficits –apathy, listlessness, “giving up” n Cognitive deficits –decreased ability to learn new responses n Emotional/Affective deficits –depression, lowered self-competence
Learned Helplessness Internal/ExternalGlobal/SpecificStable/Unstable “I control what happens to me.” “The world controls what happens to me” “This event has huge effects.” “This event has limited effects.” “Things will always be like this.” “Things can change.” PersonalPervasive Relatively permanent
Learned Helplessness n When a bad thing happens, do you think it will just be a bad day? n Do you succeed because you are smart? Lucky this time? Or because things just happened to work out? n Do you fail because you are stupid? Because life is unfair? LANGUAGE: n “I failed the test because I’m stupid – I can’t pass any tests.” (internal-stable-global) n “Everyone who took the exam with me failed: that test was unfair – I’ll pass other tests.” (external-unstable-specific attribution)
Hardy Personality: A Stress Resilient Personality n Commitment n Control n Challenge The 3 “C’s” C C C
Hardy / Type A Resilient people may have many “Type A” traits……but MINUS feelings of hostility. Resilient people enjoy life and hurry in order to experience more. They love life.
Type “R” personality: sensation seekers Zuckerman identified the sensation- seeking personality, as those people who seek thrills and sensations but take calculated risks in their endeavors; they appear to be dominated by an adventurous spirit. Zuckerman identified the sensation- seeking personality, as those people who seek thrills and sensations but take calculated risks in their endeavors; they appear to be dominated by an adventurous spirit.
Self-Esteem: The Bottom-Line Defense Basic elements of high self-esteem: – connectedness – uniqueness – personal power – models / mentors » Be OK with the fact that there are some things over which we have NO control!
Self-Esteem: Raise and/or Maintain n No criticism n Positive reinforcements and affirmations n Avoid “should haves” n Focus on internal self n Avoid comparisons n Diversify n Improve connectedness n Avoid self-victimization n Know your value!
SELF-IMAGE how you perceive yourself SELF-ESTEEM how you value yourself