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Looking Out, Looking In 12 th Edition Chapter 5 1 Language: Barrier or Bridge  Chapter Summary Language is Symbolic Understanding and Misunderstanding.

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Presentation on theme: "Looking Out, Looking In 12 th Edition Chapter 5 1 Language: Barrier or Bridge  Chapter Summary Language is Symbolic Understanding and Misunderstanding."— Presentation transcript:

1 Looking Out, Looking In 12 th Edition Chapter 5 1 Language: Barrier or Bridge  Chapter Summary Language is Symbolic Understanding and Misunderstanding The Impact of Language Gender and Language Culture and Language

2 Looking Out, Looking In 12 th Edition Chapter 5 2 Language is Symbolic  Signs Signs have a direct connection with communication Language is symbolic Symbols enable more effective communication Not all languages use the same symbols Messages mean different things to different people “Take a little of the top,” means one thing to you and another to the barber

3 Looking Out, Looking In 12 th Edition Chapter 5 3 Understanding and Misunderstanding  Understanding Words Semantic Rules The way users of language assign meaning to a word Bikes are for riding and books are for reading Equivocation Statements that have more than one associated meaning Some amusing newspaper headlines “Family Catches Fire Just in Time, “Trees Can Break Wind,” and “Man Stuck on Toilet; Stool Suspected”

4 Looking Out, Looking In 12 th Edition Chapter 5 4 Understanding and Misunderstanding  Understanding Words Relative Language Words that gain meaning by comparison “Fast and Slow,” “Smart and Stupid,” “Short and Long.” Relative language is not always clear How cheap is cheap? Static Evaluation Statements that contain or imply the word is Subscripting is a devise that reduces static evaluation

5 Looking Out, Looking In 12 th Edition Chapter 5 5 Understanding and Misunderstanding  Understanding Words Abstraction Abstract vs. Behavior Language Specific things people do or say Overly abstract language can lead to serious problems Specific language can be undesirable and even seen as rude FIGURE 5.1 Page 161

6 Looking Out, Looking In 12 th Edition Chapter 5 6 Understanding and Misunderstanding  Understanding Structure Syntactic Rules Govern the grammar of language We tend to notice when they’re violated African-American English (AAE) It is important to look past syntax in order to avoid miscommunication “I be angry,” vs. “I am angry.”

7 Looking Out, Looking In 12 th Edition Chapter 5 7 Understanding and Misunderstanding  Understanding Context Pragmatic Rules Pragmatic rules govern the way speech works in everyday interaction Pragmatic rules govern common saying such as: “How’s it going,” and “What’s up.” If someone were to answer these questions literally we’d be confused Even has PRAGMATIC RULES (stop yelling)

8 Looking Out, Looking In 12 th Edition Chapter 5 8 The Impact of Language  Naming and Identity Research suggests that names are more than just means of identification Names can shape and reinforce a child's identity Naming a child after a family member can create a bond Names also play a role in the identity of groups Labeling of ethnic groups have changed as our culture has developed different sensitivities

9 Looking Out, Looking In 12 th Edition Chapter 5 9 The Impact of Language  Affiliation Communicators are attracted to those with similar speaking styles Communicators who wish to show group affiliation will adapt This process is called convergence Converges can also take place in the virtual world and IM users have commonly recognized acronyms “LOL,” “ROTFL,” “JK,” and “BRB.” Can you think of any others?

10 Looking Out, Looking In 12 th Edition Chapter 5 10 The Impact of Language  ABC News Video Click on box to play video

11 Looking Out, Looking In 12 th Edition Chapter 5 11 The Impact of Language  Power Notice the difference between the two statements “Excuse me, sir. I hate to say this, but I... uh... I guess I won’t be able to turn in the assignment on time. I had a personal emergency, and... well...it was just impossible to finish it by today. I’ll have it on your desk on Monday, OK?” “I won’t be able to turn in the assignment on time. I had a personal emergency, and it was impossible to finish it by today. I’ll have it on your desk Monday.” or

12 Looking Out, Looking In 12 th Edition Chapter 5 12 The Impact of Language  Disruptive Language Opinion Statements Opinion statements can never be proved or disproved Consider these examples from page 173 You tell a lot of ethnic jokes. You’re a bigot. You forgot my birthday. You don’t care about me. Fact Opinion You keep interrupting me. You’re a control freak.

13 Looking Out, Looking In 12 th Edition Chapter 5 13 The Impact of Language  Disruptive Language Fact-Interference Confusion Conclusions arrived at from an interpretation of evidence Instead of trying to guess the other person’s emotion use the skill of perception checking we learned in Chapter 3 Emotive Language Seems to describe but actually announces the speakers attitude toward it

14 Looking Out, Looking In 12 th Edition Chapter 5 14 The Impact of Language  Disruptive Language Remember to take responsibility for your emotions Nonemotive statements are more accurate and have a better chance of being received accurately by others

15 Looking Out, Looking In 12 th Edition Chapter 5 15 The Impact of Language  The Language of Responsibility “It” These statements replace the personal pronoun “I” with it “I” language clearly Identifies the speaker “But” The word “but” cancels the thought before it “You’re a really great person, but I think we should see other people” “You’ve done great work for us, but we’re going to have to let you go”

16 Looking Out, Looking In 12 th Edition Chapter 5 16 The Impact of Language  The Language of Responsibility “I” and “You” Language “I” language accepts responsibility “You” expresses judgment “You left this place a mess!” “You didn’t keep your promise!” “You” language doesn’t have to contain the word “you” That was a stupid joke, translates to your jokes are stupid. Mind your own business translates to you’re too nosey

17 Looking Out, Looking In 12 th Edition Chapter 5 17 The Impact of Language  The Language of Responsibility A complete “I” statement has four elements. It describes the other person’s behavior your interpretation your feelings consequence that the other person’s behavior has for you

18 Looking Out, Looking In 12 th Edition Chapter 5 18 The Impact of Language  The Language of Responsibility “We” Language Implies the issue is the concern of both parties “We need to figure out a budget that doesn’t bankrupt us.” “We aren’t doing a very good job of keeping this place clean.” “We” language suggests that “we’re” in this together “We” statements are not always appropriate

19 Looking Out, Looking In 12 th Edition Chapter 5 19 Gender and Language  Content Conversation Traits Female Personal and domestic subjects Relationships Family Health Reproductive matters Male Music Current events Sports Business Other men

20 Looking Out, Looking In 12 th Edition Chapter 5 20 Gender and Language  Reasons for Communicating The goals of almost all ordinary conversations contain Being friendly Showing interest Talking about topics that interest the other person If these rules are ignored the conversation can become unpleasant for all who are involved

21 Looking Out, Looking In 12 th Edition Chapter 5 21 Gender and Language  Conversational Style Women ask more questions in mixed-sex conversations Men tend to interrupt more in mixed-sex conversations Women use conversation to pursue social needs Statements of emotion are much more common “I’ve felt the same way myself.” “How did you feel about that?”

22 Looking Out, Looking In 12 th Edition Chapter 5 22 Gender and Language  Nongender Variables The link between gender and language is not clear cut The language between the sexes is more similar than different Woman use less powerful language Historical role in society at large Powerless speech can help build rapport Men and women speak within their gender roles

23 Looking Out, Looking In 12 th Edition Chapter 5 23 Culture and Language  Verbal Communication Styles Each language has its own unique style Verbal styles vary in their directness High-context culture Value language to maintain social harmony Low-context culture Value language to express thoughts and feelings Is the language Elaborate or Succinct

24 Looking Out, Looking In 12 th Edition Chapter 5 24 Culture and Language  Language and Worldview Linguistic Relativism The worldview of a culture is shaped and reflected by the language its members speak

25 Looking Out, Looking In 12 th Edition Chapter 5 25 Language: Barrier or Bridge  Chapter Summary Language is Symbolic Understanding and Misunderstanding The Impact of Language Gender and Language Culture and Language


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