Presentation on theme: "Conventions of Epic Poetry An epic poem has… a hero who embodies national, cultural, or religious ideals a hero upon whose actions depends the fate of."— Presentation transcript:
Conventions of Epic Poetry An epic poem has… a hero who embodies national, cultural, or religious ideals a hero upon whose actions depends the fate of his people a course of action in which the hero performs great and difficult deeds a recognition of -- or intercession by -- divine or supernatural powers a concern with eternal human problems a dignified and elaborate poetic style
What do these primary epics have in common? Each began as part of a culture’s oral tradition ORAL TRADITION socio-/cultural values transferred generation-to-generation by traveling poets/bards who sang songs about cultural heroes and values POETRY because rhyme/meter is easier to memorize and more stable as passed-on
The Iliad “written” by Homer around (c.) 720 B.C. Homer did not invent the story, but transcribed it into its longest-lasting form All versions we read are translated from ancient Greek language – Translations can vary greatly Called Iliad because “Ilium” was the Greek name for Troy – where the war took place. “Iliad” = “about Ilium”
The Trojan War ( c. 1250 B.C. ) Causes Nuclear weapons? No! Treaty violations? No! Imperial aggression? No! Trade dispute? No! A WOMAN!
Helen of Troy “The face that launched a thousand ships” Legend says that the Trojan War began when Paris – Prince of Troy and son to the Trojan King Priam – stole the wife of Menelaus, King of Sparta.
Why would Paris do something that stupid? Legend says that Paris – a desirable man because of his attractiveness, wealth and power – was approached by the goddess Eris. Eris asked Paris to give “The Golden Apple,” inscribed “To the Fairest” to Athena, Hera, or Aphrodite.
Why would Paris do something that stupid? The three goddesses were arguing over who was the most beautiful and powerful. Eris chose Paris to settle their dispute. Eris, in Greek, means “Chaos”.
Tough Choice. Hera, wife of Zeus Hera/Wife of Zeus Aphrodite/goddess of love, beauty and sexuality, daughter of Poseidon Athena/goddess of wisdom, daughter of Zeus
Which would you choose? Paris, of course, selects Aphrodite.
Menelaus promptly launches “a thousand ships” in an effort to reclaim Helen and punish Paris. As King of Sparta, Menelaus has many “allies”.
Trojan War c. 1250-1200 BC Troy (aka “Ilium”) Sparta
Trojan War c. 1250-1200 BC Black Sea Aegean Sea Dardanelles Bosporus A “less sexy” reason for the “real” Trojan War?
Line-ups: The Achaeans (aka Spartans, aka Greeks) Menelaus, the King Agamemnon, brother to Menelaus; battlefield leader of the Achaeans Ajax Odysseus Patroclus, cousin to Achilles
ACHILLES the central character – the hero – of The Iliad. a phenomenal warrior; leader of a “special detachment” fighting with Menelaus and the Spartans – the Myrmydons. Line-ups: The Achaeans (aka Spartans, aka Greeks)
Achilles’ mother, Thetis Thetis was a Nereid, a minor goddess who gave birth to Achilles, a mortal. Because of her connection with Olympus as a Nereid, Thetis was permitted access to the magical river, Styx, which separated the Earth from Hades. Thetis dipped her newborn son into the Styx, ensuring his protection against all mortal weapons, except…
Priam, King of Troy Hecuba, his wife Hector, his son; prince of Troy and the Trojans’ most valiant warrior Paris, younger brother of Hector Line-ups: The Trojans