Presentation on theme: "The category of modality in the English and German languages by Tatiana Slavnikova Group 10 – 1 Financial – economical lyceum Teacher: Klachkova Mariya."— Presentation transcript:
The category of modality in the English and German languages by Tatiana Slavnikova Group 10 – 1 Financial – economical lyceum Teacher: Klachkova Mariya Antonivna
The object and the objectives of the work The object of our work is the category of modality in the English and German languages. to define the category of modality to investigate and compare the ways and means of expressing modality in English and German. The objectives of this work are:
The Category of Modality in Modern Linguistics Modality is: expression of speaker`s attitude to what his/her utterance denotes; what makes the difference between a factual assertion, and a more guarded view or a bolder claim.
The Category of Modality in the English and German Languages The modality in English and German can be expressed by: a)phonolo- gical means (stress and intonation); b)grammati- cal means (mood forms of the verb) conveying grammatical modality; c) lexico- grammatical means (modal verbs); d) lexical means (modal words and modal expressions) conveying subjective modality;
The Modality in the English Language Ways of expressing modality Examples Phonological means I do really wish it hadn't been you. Grammatical meansDo listen to him. Modal verbsI must have a little rest. He will undoubtedly win. Lexical means
The Modality in the German Language Ways of expressing modality Examples Modal verbsEr kann seinen kranken Bruder besuchen. The modal adverbsIch komme vielleicht morgen. The modal particlesGute Kleider sind eben teuer.
CONCLUSION In German when a sentence has a modal predicate the verb it modifies is transmitted to the end of the sentence. In English the word order is much simpler. When a modal verb is used, the verb it modifies goes after the modal one. - Ich muss in den Tierpark gehen. - I must go to the zoo. - Wir können es holen. - We can get it.
in the English language there are no modal equivalents for wollen (to want to) in the German language there are no modal equivalents for dare and need.
EnglishGerman surelywohl certainlyfreilich hardlyschwerlich howeverimmerhin Each modal adverb in English has its modal equivalent in German.
The German modal particles are always uninflected words similar to the grammatical particles in English which are also uninflected. However, the English grammatical particles in fact include function words such as sentence connectors, sentence substitutes, conjunctions, interjections and even adverbs, which the German particles do not do. GermanEnglish Warum musst du denn verreisen? Tell me, why must you go away? Es war schön, ja es war großartig. It was lovely, indeed, it was splendid.
Modality is the functional polysemantic category, expressed with the help of different ways in the Germanic and Slavonic languages. In the contextually intonational conditions modality becomes apparent in the variety of its nuances. The variety of grammatical, grammatically lexical and lexical modal ways and their combinations gives the opportunity to express very subtly divided modal nuances.