An ambiguous word: unfoldable ‘not capable of being folded’ ‘capable of being unfolded’ un- negative: Adj [___ Adj [ un- ‘reverse’: V [___ V [
Phrase structure rules Rules which create tree structures PP P NP (“PP consists of/is P NP”) creates
Recursion Long sentences: This is the house that Jack built. This is the malt that lay in the house that Jack built. This is the rat that ate the malt that lay in the house that Jack built....
This is the priest all shaven and shorn that married the man all tattered and torn that kissed the maiden all forlorn that milked the cow with the crumpled horn that tossed the dog that worried the cat that killed the rat that ate the malt that lay in the house that Jack built....
Phrase structure rules –specify word order –are recursive output of one rule can be rewritten via another rule Rules which generate The House that Jack Built –NP NP S’ –S’ Comp S –S NP VP –VP V NP How to characterize infinity?
More phrase structure rules S = sentence VP =verb phrase S NP VP NP N VP V
More phrase structure rules NP (Det) (Adj+) N (PP) Det = determiner Adj = adjective N = noun () = optional + = one or more
Determiners vs. adjectives Det a/an, some, the, that, your (etc.) One determiner per NP (in English) –your truck, the truck –*your the truck, *the your truck Adj big, stupid, green (etc.) More than one Adj possible –big trucks, big stupid trucks, stupid big trucks Det precedes Adj –his stupid truck