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Semantics: The meanings of language Deny A. Kwary Airlangga University.

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1 Semantics: The meanings of language Deny A. Kwary Airlangga University

2 Lexical Semantics Semantic properties: The components of meaning of a word. Semantic feature: A notational device for expressing the presence or absence of semantic properties by pluses and minuses. E.g. baby is [+ young], [+ human], [– abstract].

3 Example (a) widow, mother, sister, aunt, maid (b) widower, father, brother, uncle, valet TTTThe (a) and (b) words are “human” TTTThe (a) words are “female” TTTThe (b) words are “male”

4 Exercise # 1, A- D, pp A. The (a) and (b) words are “male” The (a) words are “human” The (b) words are “animal” B. The (a) words are [+ count] The (b) words are [ - count] C. The (a) words are “concrete” The (b) words are “abstract” D. The (a) and (b) words are “plant” The (a) words are “tree” The (b) words are “flower”

5 Lexical Relations (1) Homophone: Different words pronounced the same but spelled differently, e.g. two and too. Homophone: Different words pronounced the same but spelled differently, e.g. two and too. Homograph: Different words spelled the same but pronounced differently, e.g. minute and minute. Homograph: Different words spelled the same but pronounced differently, e.g. minute and minute. Homonym: A word which has two or more unrelated meanings, e.g. club: ‘a social organization’ ; ‘a blunt weapon’. Homonym: A word which has two or more unrelated meanings, e.g. club: ‘a social organization’ ; ‘a blunt weapon’. Polisemy: A word which has two or more related meanings, e.g. bright: ‘shining’ ; ‘intelligent’ Polisemy: A word which has two or more related meanings, e.g. bright: ‘shining’ ; ‘intelligent’

6 Lexical Relations (2) Hyponym: Words whose meanings are specific instances of a more general word, e.g. isosceles and equilateral are hyponyms of the word triangle. Hyponym: Words whose meanings are specific instances of a more general word, e.g. isosceles and equilateral are hyponyms of the word triangle. Metonym: A word substituted for another word with which it is closely associated, e.g. diamond for a baseball field. Metonym: A word substituted for another word with which it is closely associated, e.g. diamond for a baseball field. Retronym: An expression that would once have been redundant, but which societal or technoligical changes have made nonredundant, e.g. silent movies  movies  silent movies Retronym: An expression that would once have been redundant, but which societal or technoligical changes have made nonredundant, e.g. silent movies  movies  silent movies

7 Exercise #4A, Page 224

8 Synonym or Antonym a.Flourish – thrive b.Intelligent – stupid c.Casual – informal d.Flog – whip e.Drunk – sober Lexical Relations (3) a.synonym b.antonym c.synonym d.synonym e.antonym

9 Semantic Ambiguity An utterance which has more than one meaning An utterance which has more than one meaning

10 Exercise #2 a-d, pp Exercise #3 a-b, p.224


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