# TACTIC AND LOGICO-SEMANTIC RELATIONS TACTIC AND LOGICO-SEMANTIC RELATIONS.

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TACTIC AND LOGICO-SEMANTIC RELATIONS TACTIC AND LOGICO-SEMANTIC RELATIONS

“THE EMPEROR’S NEW CLOTHES”

STEPS IN THE ANALYSIS o Segmenting the text into sentences (|||) and into clauses (||) within sentences or clause complexes; o Identifying and showing embedded clauses ([[ ]]). Embedded clauses are not analyzed in a clause complex analysis because they are elements within clauses, not clauses within a clause complex; o Assigning each clause complex a capital letter, displaying the clauses in a clause complex one below the other to facilitate analysis and assigning them a roman number;

o Doing the analysis proper using numbers or greek letters to show parataxis and hypotaxis and the notational symbols for the different kinds of expansion or projection; o Identifying the specific kind of enhancement, idea or projection and naming it between parentheses Note: angled brackets ( >) are used in segmentation for clauses that interrupt or are included or interpolated in other clauses. Note: angled brackets ( >) are used in segmentation for clauses that interrupt or are included or interpolated in other clauses.

SEGMENTING THE TEXT IN SENTENCES AND CLAUSES Once upon a time, there was an Emperor who loved to spend his money on expensive clothes. One day, two tailors arrived at his palace. They said they could make him the most beautiful suit, with magic cloth that only clever people could see. “What a wonderful suit to have”, thought the Emperor. “I’ll know immediately who is clever and who is stupid in my palace.” The Emperor gave the tailors a lot of money and a room in the palace. He was very excited, but he was also worried. “Oh dear”, he thought, “I hope I can see the magic cloth.” He sent one of his ministers to look first.

SEGMENTING THE TEXT IN SENTENCES AND CLAUSES Once upon a time, there was an Emperor [[who loved to spend his money on expensive clothes]]. ||| One day, two tailors arrived at his palace. ||| They said ||they could make him the most beautiful suit, with magic cloth [[that only clever people could see]]. |||“What a wonderful suit to have”, ||thought the Emperor. “I’ll know immediately || who is clever ||and who is stupid in my palace.” ||| The Emperor gave the tailors a lot of money and a room in the palace. ||| He was very excited, ||but he was also worried. |||“Oh dear”, >, “I hope ||I can see the magic cloth.” ||| He sent one of his ministers || to look first.

SEGMENTING THE TEXT IN SENTENCES AND CLAUSES The minister went into the tailors’ room. “Oh, no! I can’t see anything”, he thought unhappily. “What can I say to the Emperor?” “Well?” said one tailor. “Do you like the suit?” “Oh, it is excellent!”, he said. “We are very pleased to hear that”, said the tailors. The minister told the Emperor and the Emperor was delighted. He went to the tailors’ room with his minister. “Look”, said the minister.” “Aren’t the colours lovely?”. Unfortunately, the poor Emperor couldn’t see anything at all but he said “Oh yes, the suit is wonderful, thank you”.

SEGMENTING THE TEXT IN SENTENCES AND CLAUSES The minister went into the tailors’ room. |||“Oh, no! ||| I can’t see anything”, ||he thought unhappily. |||“What can I say to the Emperor?” ||| “Well?” || said one tailor. |||“Do you like the suit?” ||| “Oh, it is excellent!”, ||he said. ||| “We are very pleased [[to hear that]]”, ||said the tailors. ||| The minister told the Emperor || and the Emperor was delighted. ||| He went to the tailors’ room with his minister. ||| “Look”, ||said the minister.” ||| “Aren’t the colours lovely?”. ||| Unfortunately, the poor Emperor couldn’t see anything at all || but he said ||“Oh yes, the suit is wonderful, thank you”.

SEGMENTING THE TEXT IN SENTENCES AND CLAUSES SEGMENTING THE TEXT IN SENTENCES AND CLAUSES Naturally, everybody wanted to see the suit, so the Emperor put on his new clothes II and went into the city with his ministers. All the people clapped and cheered loudly. The Emperor felt better. Then, suddenly, a little boy ran out. “The Emperor isn’t wearing any clothes!” he shouted. “Oh, it’s true!” the people said. “He’s as naked as the day he was born!” The Emperor, who was so embarrassed, ran quickly back to the palace and called angrily for the tailors but they were gone.

SEGMENTING THE TEXT IN SENTENCES AND CLAUSES SEGMENTING THE TEXT IN SENTENCES AND CLAUSES Naturally, everybody wanted to see the suit, ||so the Emperor put on his new clothes || and went into the city with his ministers. ||| All the people clapped || and (all the people) cheered loudly. ||| The Emperor felt better. ||| Then, suddenly, a little boy ran out. |||“The Emperor isn’t wearing any clothes!” ||he shouted. ||| “Oh, it’s true!” ||the people said. |||“He’s as naked [[as the day he was born]]!” ||| The Emperor, >, ran quickly back to the palace || and called angrily for the tailors || but they were gone. |||

THE END

TACTIC AND LS RELATIONS PRACTICE oOnce upon a time, there was an Emperor [[who loved to spend his money on expensive clothes]]. o One day, two tailors arrived at his palace.

TACTIC AND LS RELATIONS PRACTICE o Once upon a time, there was an Emperor [[who loved to spend his money on expensive clothes]]. Single Clause o One day, two tailors arrived at his palace. Single Clause

TACTIC AND LS RELATIONS PRACTICE o They said || they could make him the most beautiful suit, with magic cloth [[that only clever people could see]].

TACTIC AND LS RELATIONS PRACTICE AIαThey said II“βthey could make him the most beautiful suit, with most beautiful suit, with magic cloth [[that only magic cloth [[that only clever people could see]]. clever people could see]]. (locution: major clause – statement) (locution: major clause – statement)

TACTIC AND LS RELATIONS PRACTICE o “What a wonderful suit to have”, || thought the Emperor.

TACTIC AND LS RELATIONS PRACTICE BI ‘1 “What a wonderful suit [[to have]]”, have]]”, II 2 thought the Emperor. II 2 thought the Emperor. (idea: reduced major clause - “What a wonderful suit to (idea: reduced major clause - “What a wonderful suit to have this is ” = exclamatory have this is ” = exclamatory statement) statement)

TACTIC AND LS RELATIONS PRACTICE o “I’ll know immediately || who is clever || and who is stupid in my palace.” (Although this clause complex could be seen as projected by “thought the Emperor” in the previous clause complex, it is presented as a separate sentence in the story and that is why it is analyzed independently here) (Although this clause complex could be seen as projected by “thought the Emperor” in the previous clause complex, it is presented as a separate sentence in the story and that is why it is analyzed independently here) o The Emperor gave the tailors a lot of money and a room in the palace.

TACTIC AND LS RELATIONS PRACTICE CI α “I’ll know immediately II ‘β 1 who is clever III +2 and who is stupid in my palace.” (idea: wh-questions) (idea: wh-questions) The Emperor gave the tailors a lot of The Emperor gave the tailors a lot of money and a room in the palace. money and a room in the palace. Single clause

TACTIC AND LS RELATIONS PRACTICE o He was very excited, || but he was also worried. o “Oh dear”, >, “I hope || I can see the magic cloth.”

TACTIC AND LS RELATIONS PRACTICE DI1He was very excited, II +2but he was also worried. EI ‘1 α“Oh dear”, >, “I hope hope II ‘β I can see the magic cloth.” cloth.” III2 he thought.

TACTIC AND LS RELATIONS PRACTICE o He sent one of his ministers|| to look first. (The Non-finite clause is a dangling construction, because the Subject in it is not the same as the Subject in the main clause. This is the way it occurs in the story, though, and that’s why it’s been kept that way. We can tell it’s a dependent clause of purpose and not a Qualifier because, apart from the fact that it is not qualifying/specifying “minister”, it can be replaced by “in order for him to look first”, which is clearly a clause of purpose) o The minister went into the tailors’ room.

TACTIC AND LS RELATIONS PRACTICE FIαHe sent one of his ministers ministers IIxβto look first. (enhancement, cause: purpose) The minister went into the tailors’ room. The minister went into the tailors’ room. Single Clause

TACTIC AND LS RELATIONS PRACTICE o “Oh, no! I can’t see anything”, || he thought unhappily. (One could argue that“Oh no!” is a separate minor clause, as an exclamation sign functions graphically as a stop. Still here it has been analyzed as part of the idea projected by “he thought unhappily, because it is included as part of the utterance between the inverted commas”) o “Oh, no! I can’t see anything”, || he thought unhappily. (One could argue that “Oh no!” is a separate minor clause, as an exclamation sign functions graphically as a stop. Still here it has been analyzed as part of the idea projected by “he thought unhappily, because it is included as part of the utterance between the inverted commas”) o “What can I say to the Emperor?” (One could argue that this clause is also projected by “he thought” in the previous clause-complex. However, it has been analyzed separately here because it is presented in the text as a separate sentence) (One could argue that this clause is also projected by “he thought” in the previous clause-complex. However, it has been analyzed separately here because it is presented in the text as a separate sentence)

TACTIC AND LS RELATIONS PRACTICE GI‘1“Oh, no! I can’t see anything”, anything”, II 2he thought unhappily. “What can I say to the Emperor?” Single Clause Single Clause

TACTIC AND LS RELATIONS PRACTICE o “Well?” said one tailor. o “Do you like the suit?” (In the text of the story used here “Do you like the suit?” has been presented as a separate sentence and thus it cannot be analyzed as projection of “said the tailor”, although it’s also something the tailor said.)

TACTIC AND LS RELATIONS PRACTICE HI “1 “Well?” II 2 said one tailor. (locution: minor clause) “Do you like the suit?” Single clause

TACTIC AND LS RELATIONS PRACTICE o “Oh, it is excellent!”, || he said. o “We are very pleased [[to hear that]]”, said the tailors.

TACTIC AND LS RELATIONS PRACTICE II“1“Oh, it is excellent!”, II 2he said. (locution: statement) (locution: statement) JI“1“We are very pleased [[to hear that]]”, II 2 said the tailors. (locution: statement) (locution: statement)

TACTIC AND LS RELATIONS PRACTICE o The minister told the Emperor || and the Emperor was delighted. o He went to the tailors’ room with his minister.

TACTIC AND LS RELATIONS PRACTICE KI 1 The minister told the Emperor II+2 and the Emperor was delighted. II+2 and the Emperor was delighted. o He went to the tailors’ room with his minister. Single Clause

TACTIC AND LS RELATIONS PRACTICE o “Look”, || said the minister. o “Aren’t the colours lovely?” (Again this could be taken as part of what the minister said, but as it is presented as a separate sentence in the text it is not analyzed as part of the clause complex)

TACTIC AND LS RELATIONS PRACTICE LI“1 “Look”, II 2 said the minister. (locution: command) (locution: command) “Aren’t the colours lovely?”. “Aren’t the colours lovely?”. Single Clause Single Clause

TACTIC AND LS RELATIONS PRACTICE oUnfortunately, the poor Emperor couldn’t see anything at all ||but he said || “Oh yes, the suit is wonderful, thank you”.

TACTIC AND LS RELATIONS PRACTICE MI 1 Unfortunately, the poor Emperor couldn’t see anything at all, II +2 1 but he said “2 “Oh yes, the suit is wonderful, thank you”. “2 “Oh yes, the suit is wonderful, thank you”. (locution: statement) (locution: statement)

TACTIC AND LS RELATIONS PRACTICE o Naturally, everybody wanted to see the suit, || so the Emperor put on his new clothes || and went into the city with his ministers.

TACTIC AND LS RELATIONS PRACTICE NI1Naturally, everybody wanted to see the suit, II x2 1so the Emperor put on his new clothes +2and (the E) went into +2and (the E) went into the city with his the city with his ministers. ministers. (See comments on next screen.) (See comments on next screen.)

TACTIC AND LS RELATIONS PRACTICE The analysis of the clause complex in the previous screen assumes that clauses 2 and 3 are more closely related with each other than they are separately to clause 1, as they are both consequences of the process expressed in clause 1.

TACTIC AND LS RELATIONS PRACTICE oAll the people clapped ||and cheered loudly. oThe Emperor felt better. oThen, suddenly, a little boy ran out.

TACTIC AND LS RELATIONS PRACTICE O I 1 All the people clapped II+2 and cheered loudly. oThe Emperor felt better. Single Clause Single Clause oThen, suddenly, a little boy ran out. Single Clause

TACTIC AND LS RELATIONS PRACTICE o“The Emperor isn’t wearing any clothes!” || he shouted. o“Oh, it’s true!” || the people said. oHe’s as naked [[as the day he was born]]!”

TACTIC AND LS RELATIONS PRACTICE PI“1 “The Emperor isn’t wearing any clothes!” II 2 he shouted. QI“1 “Oh, it’s true!” II 2 the people said. oHe’s as naked [[as the day he was born]]!” Single Clause.

TACTIC AND LS RELATIONS PRACTICE o The Emperor, > ran quickly back to the palace || and called angrily for the tailors || but they were gone. (This clause complex contains an “included” or “interrupting” clause. That is the name given to dependent clauses, usually dependent clauses of elaboration, that interrupt, or are interspersed in, another clause they are related with.) (This clause complex contains an “included” or “interrupting” clause. That is the name given to dependent clauses, usually dependent clauses of elaboration, that interrupt, or are interspersed in, another clause they are related with.)

TACTIC AND LS RELATIONS PRACTICE RI α 1 The Emperor, > ran quickly back to the palace II +2 1 and called angrily for the tailors III +2 but they were gone. IV =β > IV =β > (See comments on analysis in next screen) (See comments on analysis in next screen)

TACTIC AND LS RELATIONS PRACTICE In the analysis of the clause complex in the previous screen the analysis has been tidied up a bit by displaying the dependent clause of elaboration as clause IV, although this clause interrupts or is included in clause I. This has been done to better show the closer relationship existing between clauses I, II and III in the analysis, that all relate hypotactically to clause IV ( to the dependent clause of elaboration.)