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Introduction to Psychological Science Study Session, Exam 3.

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1 Introduction to Psychological Science Study Session, Exam 3

2 Which of the following is NOT considered a mood disorder? a.Major depressive disorder b.Bipolar disorder c.Seasonal affective disorder d.Obsessive-compulsive disorder

3 D. Obsessive-compulsive disorder Mood disorders are mental disorders that have mood disturbances as their predominant feature. The two main forms of mood disorders are depression & bipolar disorder. Obsessive-compulsive disorder is anxiety disorder.

4 TRUE OR FALSE The following is an example of helplessness theory: A student accounts for a low grade on a test by thinking they are stupid. They believe that they will always be stupid. They believe that they will receive low scores on all future tests and assignments.

5 TRUE Negative experiences are due to internal causes (I am stupid), which are stable (I will always be stupid), and global (I will receive low scores on all future tests and assignments)

6 Helplessness theory explains negative experiences thought internal, stable, and global causes in people who are prone to __________. a.Dissociative amnesia b.Panic disorder c.Depression d.Generalized anxiety disorder

7 C. Depression

8 A person that experiences schizophrenia may experience delusions. Which of the following is an example of a delusion? a.Hearing voices b.Believing that aliens are trying to abduct you c.Believing that you are Jesus Christ d.B & C

9 D. B & C Delusions are patently false belief systems, often bizarre and grandiose, that is maintained in spite of its irrationality. Common delusions include believing you are a famous person and the belief that you are being persecuted (by the CIA, demons, etc.) Hearing voices is an example of a hallucination.

10 Paul has a sister, Amy, who is schizophrenic. His chances of having schizophrenia are __________ than the chance of having schizophrenia if you are a MZ twin and your twin has schizophrenia. a.Lower b.Greater c.Equal d.Unknown

11 A.Lower The closer a person’s genetic relatedness to a person with schizophrenia, the greater the likelihood of developing the disorder. Since Paul and Amy share less genetic material than MZ twins do, Paul has a lower chance of developing schizophrenia than if he were a MZ twin with someone that had the disorder.

12 The terms sociopath and psychopath best describe someone who has which of the following personality disorders? a.Schizotypal b.Antisocial c.Borderline d.Avoidant

13 B. Antisocial Antisocial personality disorder is defined as a pervasive pattern of disregard for and violation of the rights of others that begins in childhood or early adolescence and continues into adulthood.

14 According to the frustration-aggression principle, if I plan to rob a convenience store to get money, but there is a clerk standing in front of the register I am most likely to do which of the following? a.Pull out my gun and point it at the clerk, demanding he get out of the way “or else” b.Politely ask for the clerk to give me the money c.Leave the store d.Realize that being a robber is bad and decide to change my ways

15 A. Pull out my gun and point it at the clerk, demanding he get out of the way “or else” People aggress when their goals are thwarted My goal is to get to money, which is being prevented by the clerk standing in front of the register.

16 TRUE OR FALSE Impulsive aggression is usually about scare resources.

17 FALSE Impulsive aggression is rarely about scare resources; it occurs when people aggress spontaneously and without premeditation.

18 According to reciprocal altruism why would I bring Colin chicken noodle soup when he is sick? a.I generally care about his well-being b.I made soup and did not eat all of it c.I am a good friend d.I hope that Colin will remember this and somehow return the favor in the future

19 D. I hope that Colin will remember this and somehow return the favor in the future Reciprocal altruism is not very altruistic!!!

20 When bystanders are less likely to help an innocent person in distress when there are many other bystanders acting the same way is most likely due to __________. a.Prejudice b.Group polarization c.Diffusion of responsibility d.None of the above

21 C. Diffusion of responsibility Individuals feel diminished responsibility for their actions because they are surrounded by others who are acting the same way **Kitty Genovese

22 TRUE OR FALSE In Milgram’s classic study, participants enjoyed shocking the learner.

23 FALSE Participants did not enjoy having to shock the learners, they showed much distress.

24 At the grocery store I encounter a cashier who is very rude. Unknown to me, the cashier got a flat tire, was late to work, and got in trouble with his boss. I immediately make the judgment that the cashier is a miserable, nasty person. Which of the following have I just committed? effect b.Correspondence bias c.Fundamental attribution error d.B & C

25 D. B & C Correspondence bias is the tendency to make a dispositional attribution even when a person’s behavior was caused by the situation; also called the fundamental attribution error

26 At this level of moral development(Kohlberg), a child may not take a piece of candy from another because he or she is afraid of being punished opposed to being guided by feelings of morality or an understanding of the law. A.) Pre-conventional stage B.) Conventional stage C.) Post-conventional stage D.) Hyper-conventional stage

27 Correct Answer: A.) Pre-conventional stage, which is a stage of moral development in which the morality of an action is primarily determined by its consequences for the actor.

28 People who have reached this stage of moral development (Kohlberg) are concerned with the innate rights of humans and are guided by their own ethical principles. A.) Pre-conventional stage B.) Conventional stage C.) Post-conventional stage D.) Hyper-conventional stage

29 Correct answer: C.) Post-conventional stage of moral development, at this stage the morality of an action is determined by a set of general principles that reflect core values.

30 The failure to understand that that the world appears differently to different observers is known as: A.) Ethnocentrism B.) Incompetence C.) Theory of Mind D.) Egocentrism

31 Correct answer: D.) Egocentrism is the failure to understand that the world appears differently to different observers. Theory of Mind is the idea that human behavior is guided by mental representation, which gives rise to the realization that the world is not always the way it looks and that different people see it differently.

32 Babies have different patterns of emotional reactivity that are known as: A.) Traits B.) Temperaments C.) Characteristics D.) Conciousness

33 Correct answer: B.) Temperaments are characteristic patterns of Emotional reactivity.

34 A ________ is anything that can disrupt the development of an embryo or fetus in a pregnant mother's womb.These may cause a birth defect, malformation, or terminate the pregnancy altogether.It can be in the form of harmful drugs or chemicals, like birth control pills, nicotine, alcohol, or some types of medication. A.) Myelin Sheath B.) Conundra C.) Teratogen D.) Sonic boom

35 Correct answer: C.) Teratogen, Agents that damage the process of development, such as drugs and viruses.

36 A human fetus is responsive to sound at approximately 6 months of development. A.) TRUE B.) FALSE

37 Correct answer: A.) True, at 6 months the fetus CAN hear, so those Mother’s with headphones on their pregnant bellies are not crazy.

38 At this stage of cognitive development children learn about and start to understand the world around them by doing things like sucking, grasping, crawling, etc. A.) Sensorimotor B.) Preoperational C.) Concrete operational D.) Formal operational

39 Correct answer: A.) Sensorimotor, Piaget’s first stage of cognitive development from birth to 2 years. The infant experiences the world through movement and senses, develops schemas, begins to act intentionally, and shows evidence of understanding object permanence.

40 In this stage of cognitive development (from about 6 to 11 years of age) children gain the abilities and mental operations that allow them to think logically about concrete events such as mathematical operations and principles, and conservation. A.) Childhood B.) Concrete operational stage C.) Fluid operational stage D.) Pre-operational stage

41 Correct answer: B.) Concrete operational stage. Begins at about 6 years and ends at about 11 years, in which children acquire a basic understanding of the physical world and a preliminary understanding of their own and others’ minds.

42 An infant named Christiana sees a beautiful diamond in a store window. After her mother pushes her stroller past the storefront Christiana does not look back to search for the diamond and appears to have forgotten about it completely. Christiana does not have a theory of ___________. A.) Materialism B.) Relativity C.) Wealth D.) Object permanence

43 Correct answer: D.) Object permanence. The idea that objects continue to exist even when they are not visible.

44 In this stage of human development (Erikson) the childs crisis is initiatve vs. guilt and their key event is independence. A.) Oral-sensory B.) Locomotor C.) Latency D.) Adolescence

45 Correct answer: B.) Locomotor

46 Which of the following is not one of the three key elements that must be present for a cluster of symptoms to qualify as a potential mental disorder (according to the DSM-IV-TR): A.) A disorder is manifested in symptoms that involve disturbances in behaviors, thoughts, or emotions. B.) The symptoms are associated with significant personal distress or impairment. C.) The symptoms negatively affect family members and others close to the afflicted individual. D.) The symptoms stem from an internal dysfunction (biological, psychological, or both).

47 Correct answer: C.) The symptoms negatively affect family members and others close to the afflicted individual.

48 _________________ is a type of anxiety disorder in which a person feels tense and apprehensive on a very regular basis (sometimes it seems like they feel this way all the time). In addition, these feelings are accompanied by actual increases in the autonomic nervous system, such as increased blood pressure, increased heart rate, increased blood flow to the muscles and away from the GI tract, etc. A.) Generalized Anxiety Disorder B.) Phobic Disorders C.) Social phobia D.) Specific phobia

49 Correct answer: A.) Generalized Anxiety Disorder.

50 ________ are disorders in which a person's conscious awareness becomes separated (dissociated) from previous memories, thoughts, and feelings. A.) Mood Disorders B.) Associative Disorders C.) Comparative Disorders D.) Dissociative Disorders

51 Correct answer: D.) Dissociative Disorders

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