4Articles in Arabic.. Definite article: ال التعريف همزة وصلاتصال ال التعريف بالاسم يقتضي الاستغناء عن التنوينIndefinite article: لا يوجدالتنوين دليل على التنكير
5Articles in English.. Definite article: Indefinite article: thewhen the noun is known or clear to the listener/speakerwith certain words (e.g., the doctor, the bank, the army, the police, the airportIndefinite article:Aanwhen referring to something for the first timeWhen the noun is not known to the reader/listener
6Examples: I had a steak for dinner. The steak was delicious. When we were on vacation, we stayed at a very nice hotel. However, the problem was that the hotel was very expensive.The teacher told Amal to sit on a chair. So she sat on the chair near the window.The window is opposite the door in our classroom.
7The vs. A/An vs. ∅ Use “the” when there is only one of something The moon, the sun, the universeThe longest, the shortest, the biggestThe only…The sea, the sky, the groundWhen we mean voyage sea with no “the”No article with space (i.e., outer space) BUT The space is big enough for the sofa.
8The radio, the theater, the cinema BUT no “the” with television We watch televisionUNLESS we mean the television set Please turn on the televisionNo “the” with the names of meals (i.e., breakfast, lunch, dinner)We have breakfast at 9:00 every morning.Dinner is always a family event.BUT I had a nice dinner with my friends
9Use “the” with singular countable nouns to mean something in general Types of animals/plants:The elephant is a huge animal = Elephants are huge animalsThe rose is a fragrant flower = Roses are fragrant flowersType of machine/invention:The telephone was invented by Thomas Edison.The car is the most common means of transportation in Saudi Arabia.
10The + adjectiveThe meaning is always pluralthe rich, the old, the blind, the sick, the injured, the poor, the young, the unemployedBut a blind man, not a blind
11The + nationality words With some nationalities to mean the people of that countrythe British, the English, the Spanish, the Dutch, the Irish, the French, the Swissthe Chinese, the Japanese(the) Italians, (the) Arabs, (the) Scots, (the) Turks, (the) Russians
12The hospital vs. hospital Hospital (the idea of hospital) someone goes to hospital or is in hospital if he is illThe Hospital (a specific hospital) to visit someone thereNo “the” with School, university, college, prison (the idea of these places)BUT: She went to the school to apply for a job. (not as a student or to study)BUT: Where is the university? (the location/building)No “the” with bed, work, homeGo to bed.. She is in bed the bed (furniture)Go to work.. Be at work.. Start work..Go home.. Come home.. Stay at home..
13Countries and states no the Geographical NamesContinents no theAsia, Africa, North AmericaCountries and states no theFrance, Saudi Arabia, JapanBUT: Use the with names including republic, union, kingdom, and statesThe United States of America, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, the Republic of ChinaBUT: Use the with plural namesThe Philippines, the Netherlands
14Cities no theCairo, New YorkException: The Hague (in the Netherlands)Islands (groups) theThe Bahamas, the Canary IslandsIslands (single islands) no theBermuda, Sicily
20Omitting the verb Linking verb Helping verb (present continuous tense) I am a student.She is kindHelping verb (present continuous tense)I am leaving now.We are speaking English.
21Translating the verb Main verb The child was ill. The boys were one team.Helping verb (past continuous tense)Her mother was preparing lunch.The guests were praying.
22Linking verbs: become , seem , appear , get, turn, grow, feel, look, smell, taste, sound They perform linking functions and need to be translated according to the meaning they represent in the sentence..They seem upset because of what happened.The food smells delicious.The children feel happy.The weather became cold.
24As a helping verb disregard the verb The workers have already left.The patient has seen the doctor.As a main verb understand the meaning and translate it accordinglyShe has money.He has breakfast at 8:00 every morning.
26Subject-Verb Agreement in Arabic.. When the verb occurs before the subject and it is in 3rd person (الغائب)singularكتب الولديكتب الولدانكتب الأولادgender agreementكتب الطالب كتبت الطالبةيكتب المعلمون تكتب المعلماتكتب الأستاذان كتبت الأستاذتان
27With broken plurals (جمع التكسير) feminine form of verb Example:ظهرت النجومUNLESS the plural refers to male human beings!حضر الرجالTrue gender is taken into considerationأمر الخليفة بسجن السارق وليسأمرت الخليفة بسجن السارق
28When the verb occurs after the subject gender and number agreementالبنات دخلن إلى الغرفةالأولاد فتحوا البابالمهندس حضر الاجتماعالطبيبة فحصت المريض
29Using the 3rd person plural verb.. When the plural subject is not mentionedذهبوا – أكلوا – درسواWhen the subject is placed first for emphasisالطلاب خرجوا عندما انتهى وقت المحاضرةWhen the subject has already been mentionedاختبر الطلاب ثم ذهبوا لمنازلهم.
30Subject-Verb Agreement in English.. Subjects and verbs must agree in numberThe student is present.The students are present.She has spoken to her teacher.They have finished their homework.Third person singular subjectsVerbs that occur with third person singular subjects must take the (s) suffixThe student comes to school everyday.She eats lunch with her family after school.
34Translate the following sentences into Arabic: You are her father.He is eating an apple.She is invited to the party.The bird was beautiful.My brother was writing a letter.The two students have missed class.Have a seat.
35We grew tired as we were climbing the mountain. The weather turns hot in July.It sounds like they did not enjoy the trip.Have fun!Amal had a nice vacation.
36Complete the following sentences with a/an, the, or ∅: We went out for _______ meal last night. _______ restaurant we went to was excellent._______ President of the United States is elected every four years.After _______ lunch, we went for a walk by _______ sea.When I was _______ child, I used to be very shy.He has _______ very long hair.I visited _______ Bahamas, but I have never been to _______ Cyprus.Have you finished with _______ book I lent you last week?
37As I was walking along the street, I saw _______ $10 bill on _______ sidewalk. _______ moon goes around _______ earth every 27 days.I invited Amy to _______ dinner next week.Can you turn _______ television down please? It's too loud.
38ReferencesAzar, B. S. (1999). Understanding and using English grammar (3rd ed.). New York: Longman.Haywood, J. A. & Nahmad, H. M. (1976). A new Arabic grammar. UK: Lund Humphries LondonKhalil, A. M. (1999). A contrastive grammar of English and Arabic. Jordon: Jordon Book Centre Company Limited..