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Beesley 2001 Finite-State Technology and Linguistic Applications 12-16 March 2001 Xerox Research Centre Europe Grenoble Laboratory 6, chemin de Maupertuis 38240 MEYLAN, France Kenneth BEESLEY

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Beesley 2001 Ken Beesley: Brief Introduction B.A., Linguistics and Computer Science, Brigham Young University, 1978 Diploma, Linguistics and Phonetics, Univ. of Glasgow, 1979 D.Phil., “Epistemics” (Cognitive Science), Univ. of Edinburgh, 1983 ALPNET, computer assisted translation, 1984-1990 1988-1990 Arabic morphology project, exposure to Finite-State Morphology from Lauri Karttunen at COLING 1988 Microlytics (Xerox spinoff), 1990-1993 Xerox Corporation 1993-present Morphology projects: Arabic, Spanish, Portuguese, Italian, Dutch, (Malay), (Aymara); also teaching finite-state programming techniques Some people are into finite-state programming for the mathematics and algorithms; I’m in it because it lets me build working systems for interesting natural languages.

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Beesley 2001 Goals for the Week Introduce finite-state theory Introduce the Xerox Finite-State “Calculus”, a practical software implementation of the theory: xfst, lexc Try to convince you that finite-state natural-language processing is a Good Thing The Hope: Inspire a few of you to start your own computational projects, perhaps on Maltese Finite-state techniques are widely used today in both research and industry for natural-language processing. The software implementations and documentation are improving steadily, and they are increasingly available to all of us.

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Beesley 2001 Schedule Monday 12 MarchLC1117Gentle Introduction 17.00-19.00 Tuesday 13 Unix LabIntro. to xfst 17.00-19.30 Wednesday 14Unix LabMore on xfst 10.00-12.30 Thursday 15Unix LabIntro. to lexc 17.00-19.30 Friday 16403 CCTLinguistics Circle 18.30-20.00

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Beesley 2001 Today’s Goals Understand “Regular” Languages and Relations. Understand the mathematical operations that can be performed on such Languages and Relations. Understand how Languages, Relations, Regular Expressions, and Networks are interrelated. Understand that we can create finite-state networks and compute with them using Xerox Finite-State Technology xfst interface –Regular-Expression Compiler –Access to Finite-State Algorithms lexc language –Used mainly for lexicons and for describing morphotactics

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Beesley 2001 Why is “Finite State” Computing So Interesting? Finite-state systems are mathematically elegant, easily manipulated and modifiable. Computationally efficient. Usually very compact. The programming we linguists do is declarative. We describe the facts of our natural language; i.e. we write grammars. We do not hack ad hoc code. The runtime code, which applies our systems to linguistic input, is already written and it is completely language-independent. Finite-state systems are inherently bidirectional: we can use the same system to analyze and to generate.

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Beesley 2001 What is Finite-State Computing Good For? Mostly “lower-level” natural language processing Tokenization Spelling checking/correction Phonology Morphological Analysis/Generation Emphasis this week Part-of-Speech Tagging “Shallow” Syntactic Parsing and “Chunking” Finite-state techniques cannot do everything; but for tasks where they do apply, they are extremely attractive.

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Beesley 2001 Where is Xerox Finite-State Technology Used? Xerox Research Xerox Palo Alto Research Center Xerox Research Centre Europe Xerox Business Units and Partners ATS MKMS Inxight Universities and Research Groups Over 70 licensees We would like to make Xerox technology the de facto standard

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Beesley 2001 The Gentle Introduction Chapter 1 of The Book Physical Finite-State Machines (Automata) Linguistic Finite-State Machines –Symbol –Alphabet –Language Lookup and Generation Quick Review of Set Theory Languages, Relations and Transducers

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Beesley 2001 Physical Machines with Finite States The Lightswitch Machine OFFON PUSH UP PUSH DOWN

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Beesley 2001 Physical Machines with Finite States The Lightswitch Toggle Machine OFFON PUSH

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Beesley 2001 Physical Machines with Finite States The Fan in Ken’s Old Car OFF HILOWMED RRR L LL

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Beesley 2001 Physical Machines with Finite States Three-Way Lightswitch OFF HILOWMED RRR R

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Beesley 2001 The Cola Machine Need to enter 25 cents (USA) to get a drink Accepts the following coins: Nickel = 5 cents Dime = 10 cents Quarter = 25 cents For simplicity, our machine needs exact change We will model only the coin-accepting mechanism

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Beesley 2001 Physical Machines with Finite States The Cola Machine 0 N D Q NNNN DDD 510152025 Start StateFinal/Accept State

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Beesley 2001 The Cola Machine Language List of all the sequences of coins accepted: Q DDN DND NDD DNNN NDNN NNDN NNND NNNNN Think of the coins as SYMBOLS or CHARACTERS The set of symbols accepted is the ALPHABET of the machine Think of sequences of coins as WORDS or “strings” The set of words accepted by the machine is its LANGUAGE

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Beesley 2001 Linguistic Machines c ant o t i g re m e s a m e s a “Apply”

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Beesley 2001 More Linguistic Machines clea e m e s a s “Apply Up” v r e “Apply Down” m esa+Noun+Fem +Pl mesa 00s A Transducer mesas+Noun+Fem+Pl

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Beesley 2001 A Morphological Analyzer Transducer Surface Word Language Analysis Word Language

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Beesley 2001 A Quick Review of Set Theory A set is a collection of objects. A B D E We can enumerate the “members” or “elements” of finite sets: { A, D, B, E}. There is no significant order in a set, so { A, D, B, E } is the same set as { E, A, D, B }, etc.

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Beesley 2001 Uniqueness of Elements You cannot have two or more ‘A’ elements in the same set A B DE { A, A, D, B, E} is just a redundant specification of the set { A, D, B, E }.

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Beesley 2001 Cardinality of Sets The Empty Set: A Finite Set: An Infinite Set: e.g. The Set of all Positive Integers Norway Denmark Sweden

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Beesley 2001 Simple Operations on Sets: Union A B C D E Set 1Set 2 B C A D E Union of Set1 and Set 2

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Beesley 2001 Simple Operations on Sets (2): Union A B C C D Set 1Set 2 B C A D Union of Set1 and Set 2

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Beesley 2001 Simple Operations on Sets (3): Intersection A B C C D Set 1Set 2 C Intersection of Set1 and Set 2

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Beesley 2001 Simple Operations on Sets (4): Subtraction A B C C D Set 1Set 2 A B Set 1 minus Set 2

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Beesley 2001 Formal Languages Very Important Concept in Formal Language Theory: A Language is just a Set of Words. We use the terms “word” and “string” interchangeably. A Language can be empty, have finite cardinality, or be infinite in size. You can union, intersect and subtract languages, just like any other sets.

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Beesley 2001 Union of Languages (Sets) dog cat rat elephant mouse Language 1 Language 2 dog cat rat elephant mouse Union of Language 1 and Language 2

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Beesley 2001 Intersection of Languages (Sets) dog cat rat elephant mouse Language 1 Language 2 Intersection of Language 1 and Language 2

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Beesley 2001 Intersection of Languages (Sets) dog cat rat rat mouse Language 1 Language 2 Intersection of Language 1 and Language 2 rat

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Beesley 2001 Subtraction of Languages (Sets) dog cat rat rat mouse Language 1 Language 2 Language 1 minus Language 2 dog cat

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Beesley 2001 Languages A language is a set of words (=strings). Words (strings) are composed of symbols (letters) that are “concatenated” together. At another level, words are composed of “morphemes”. In most natural languages, we concatenate morphemes together to form whole words. For sets consisting of words (i.e. for Languages), the operation of concatenation is very important.

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Beesley 2001 Concatenation of Languages work talk walk Root Language 0 ing ed s Suffix Language work working worked works talk talking talked talks walk walking walked walks The concatenation of the Suffix language after the Root language.

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Beesley 2001 Languages and Networks w a l k o r t Network/Language 1 Network/Language 2 s o r s The concatenation of Network 1 and Network 2 w a l k t a a s e d i n g 0 s e d i 0 s

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Beesley 2001 Grammars, Languages, Networks Grammar written in xfst or lexc Language or Relation Finite-State Network DescribesCompiles Into Recognize or Map In the coming days, we will learn how to write xfst and lexc grammars and compile them into working systems.

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Beesley 2001 Tasks/Exercises Read chapter 1, at least up to page 28 Do Exercises 1.10.1 (page 34) and 1.10.2 (page 36). For more rigor, read Chapter 2. Do the graphing exercise in Appendix B (page 381).

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